Practice Questions on Chapter 11

  1. Which of the following is not a primate character?
    Large braincase
    Nails instead of claws on digits
    Opposable thumb on hands and feet
    Overlapping vision
    Postorbital bar
    Tight connection between upper and lower jaws

  2. Which broad group of placental mammals do primates belong to?
    Afrotheria
    Euarchontoglires
    Glires
    Laurasiatheria
    Tethytheria

  3. Which mammals are considered the closest relatives of primates?
    Artiodactyls and cetaceans
    Dermopterans and scandentians
    Lagomorphs and rodents
    Shrews and moles
    Xenarthrans

  4. Why is Plesiadapis not a likely direct primate ancestor?
    Braincase structure
    Claws on toes
    Diastema in tooth row
    Elongate metapodials
    Small brain size

  5. Match the primate groups with their unique characters.
    Broad square molars
    Claw on second toe of hindfoot
    Extinct group with long limbs and tail
    Extinct group with short snout and large orbits
    Forward-pointing incisors and canines
    Large canines
    Rounded nostrils
    Specializations in occipital/auditory region of skull
    Adapiformes
    Anthropoids
    Lemuroids
    Omomyids
    Tarsiids

  6. Match the two groups of monkeys with their characteristics.
    Broadly-spaced nostrils that point forward
    Known as New World monkeys
    Narrow snout and nose
    Originated in Africa
    Prehensile tail
    Three premolars in each jaw half
    Two premolars in each jaw half
    Catarrhines
    Platyrrhines

  7. In which epoch did apes first appear?
    Eocene
    Miocene
    Oligocene
    Paleocene
    Pliocene

  8. What main character marks the beginning of the apes?
    Forward rotation of the eyes
    Increase in body size
    Knuckle walking
    Lengthening of the limbs relative to the body
    Upright posture

  9. What factor probably led to the evolution of apes?
    Continental separation
    Cooling of global temperatures
    Drop in sea level
    Formation of rift valleys
    Reduction of forests

  10. Match the animals with the primate family or superfamily they belong to.
    Chimps
    Gibbons
    Gorillas
    Humans
    New World Monkeys
    Old World Monkeys
    Orang-utans
    Ceboidea
    Cercophecoidea
    Hominidae
    Hylobatidae

  11. Match each homonid genus with the group it belongs to.
    Australopithecus
    Paranthropus
    Praeanthropus
    Proconsul
    Sivapithecus
    Dryomorph
    Gracile australopith
    Primitive australopith
    Ramapithecine
    Robust australopith

  12. Why was Sivapithecus once thought to be specifically a human ancestor?
    Discovery in Africa
    Large brain size
    Loss of opposability in toes
    Similarity in tooth row
    Upright posture

  13. What is Sivapithecus now thought to be most closely related to?
    Baboons
    Chimpanzees
    Gorillas
    Humans
    Orang-utans

  14. What does genetic evidence indicate for the age of the split between humans and chimpanzees?
    10 million years ago
    15 million years ago
    20 million years ago
    25 million years ago
    5 million years ago

  15. About how long ago did upright human posture develop?
    1 million years
    2 million years
    4 million years
    6 million years
    8 million years

  16. About how long ago did human brain capacity exceed 500 cc?
    1 million years
    2 million years
    4 million years
    6 million years
    8 million years

  17. Which of the following is not associated with upright walking in humans?
    Lengthening of lower back
    Lengthening of the leg bones
    Repositioning of the foramen magnum
    Shortening of the pelvis
    Straightening of the knee

  18. Which small-brained human coexisted with Homo for nearly a million years?
    Ardipithecus ramidus
    Australopithecus africanus
    Paranthropus boisei
    Paranthropus robustus
    Praeanthropus afarensis

  19. Where did most of early human evolution take place?
    East Africa
    Middle East
    North America
    Northern Europe
    Southeast Asia

  20. What was the first human species to colonize much of Eurasia?
    Australopithecus africanus
    Homo erectus
    Homo habilis
    Homo sapiens
    Paranthropus boisei

  21. Match each human species with its estimated brain volume.
    Australopithecus africanus
    Homo erectus
    Homo habilis
    Homo sapiens
    Paranthropus boisei
    Paranthropus robustus
    Praeanthropus afarensis
    1000‑2000 cc
    380‑450 cc
    630‑700 cc
    800‑1300 cc

  22. Match each human fossil with its scientific name or characteristic.
    Cro-Magnon Man
    Lucy
    Neanderthal Man
    Peking Man
    Piltdown man
    Created cave art
    Famous scientific hoax
    First elaborate burials
    Homo erectus
    Praeanthropus afarensis

  23. Match the human species with the stone tool technologies they are associated with.
    Australopithecus
    Homo erectus
    Homo habilis
    Homo sapiens
    Paranthropus
    Acheulean
    Mousterian
    Oldowan

  24. Which fossil humans had stalky bodies and appear to have adapted to the Ice Age in Europe?
    Cro-Magnon Man
    Homo erectus
    Homo habilis
    Neanderthal Man
    Paranthropus robustus

  25. What appears to be the relationship between Cro-Magnon Man and Neanderthal Man in Europe?
    Cro-Magnon Man evolved from Neanderthal Man.
    Cro-Magnon Man replaced Neanderthal Man.
    Neanderthal Man evolved from Cro-Magnon Man.
    Neanderthal Man replaced Cro-Magnon Man.
    The two did not overlap in time.

  26. When did Cro-Magnon Man replace Neanderthal Man in Europe?
    1 million years
    200,000 years ago
    40,000 years ago
    5 million years
    600,000 years

  27. What do DNA studies of modern human populations indicate for the approximate age of the latest common ancestor of all living humans?
    1 million years
    200,000 years ago
    40,000 years ago
    5 million years
    600,000 years

  28. Which continent has the youngest documented record of human occupation?
    Africa
    Australia
    Eurasia
    North America
    South America