Practice Questions on Chapter 10

  1. Select whether these characteristics match modern mammals or modern reptiles.
    4-chambered heart
    Exothermic
    Extensive parental care
    Multiple lower jaw bones
    Precise tooth occlusion
    Single occipital condyle
    Small brain
    Sprawling posture
    Squamosal-dentary jaw joint
    Three middle ear bones
    Mammalian
    Reptilian

  2. Which group of synapsids includes the immediate ancestors of mammals?
    Cynodonts
    Dicynodonts
    Dinocephalians
    Gorgonopsids
    Therocephalians

  3. What is the reduction and loss of lumbar ribs in cynodonts thought to suggest?
    A larger digestive system
    A smaller digestive system
    Development of a diaphram
    Faster running
    Greater flexibility

  4. Match the reptilian bones with the bones they become in mammals.
    Reptilian bones Mammalian bones
    Angular
    Articular
    Quadrate
    Stapes
    Incus
    Malleus
    Stapes
    Tympanic

  5. What character(s) marks the identity of the very first mammals?
    Double occipital condyle
    Reduction in body size
    Single lower jaw bone
    Three middle ear bones
    All of the above

  6. How does the brain of the first mammals differ from their immediate ancestors?
    Larger and less encased in bone
    Larger and more encased in bone
    Longer but narrower
    Same size but more encased in bone
    Shorter but thicker

  7. Match the characteristics with the early mammal groups they apply to.
    Diastema between incisors and cheek teeth
    Dumbbell-shaped upper molars
    Premolar 4 much larger than the other teeth
    Retain clavicle and interclavicle
    Scapula resembles marsupials
    Teeth with three cusps forming a triangle
    Teeth with three cusps in a line
    Docodonts
    Morganucodontids
    Multituberculates
    Symmetrodonts
    Triconodonts

  8. Which mammal groups have a tribosphenic molar, at least in basal forms?
    Docodonts and Triconodonts
    Marsupials and Monotremes
    Marsupials and Placentals
    Monotremes and Multituberculates
    Multituberculates and Placentals

  9. How many shearing surfaces do tribosphenic molars have?
    2
    3
    4
    6
    8

  10. What were tribosphenic molars primarily developed for?
    Catching and killing prey
    Chewing insects
    Chewing meat
    Chewing tough plant material
    Swallowing large prey whole

  11. Match each living mammal with the group it belongs to.
    Aardvark
    Echidna
    Kangaroo
    Koala
    Opossum
    Pangolin
    Phalanger
    Platypus
    Shrew
    Sloth
    Tarsier
    Wombat
    Marsupial
    Monotreme
    Placental

  12. What continent(s) do monotremes live on today?
    Africa
    Africa and Australia
    Africa and South America
    Australia
    Australia and South America

  13. What continent(s) have monotreme fossils been found on?
    Africa
    Africa and Australia
    Africa and South America
    Australia
    Australia and South America

  14. What are the teeth of living monotremes like?
    Flat-crowned and lacking enamel
    Present only in the juvenile platypus
    Sharp and blade-like
    Sharp and multi-cusped
    Sharp and single cusped

  15. Indicate which characters describe marsupials vs. placentals.
    Broad lateral cingulum on upper molars
    Chorioallantoic placenta
    Coracoid present
    Diphyodont
    Epipubic bone present
    Palatine foramina present
    Reflected angular process on dentary
    Scapula divided by spine
    Twinned hypoconulid and entoconid
    Upper molar crowns wider relative to length
    Marsupials
    Placentals

  16. What is the primitive tooth formula for marsupials?
    I3/3 C1/1 P4/4 M3/3
    I4/4 C1/1 P3/3 M3/3
    I4/5 C1/1 P4/4 M4/4
    I5/4 C1/1 P3/3 M4/4
    I5/4 C1/1 P4/4 M3/3

  17. What is the primitive tooth formula for placentals?
    I3/3 C1/1 P4/4 M3/3
    I4/4 C1/1 P3/3 M3/3
    I4/5 C1/1 P4/4 M4/4
    I5/4 C1/1 P3/3 M4/4
    I5/4 C1/1 P4/4 M3/3

  18. How are marsupials thought to have gotten to Australia?
    From Africa by rafting
    From Asia by island hopping
    From South America via Antarctica
    They evolved from monotremes in Australia
    They evolved from some unknown ancestor in Australia

  19. Where are marsupial fossils most abundant in the late Cretaceous?
    Antarctica
    Asia
    Australia
    North America
    South America

  20. Which marsupials were nearly worldwide in the early Cenozoic?
    Kangaroos
    Koalas
    Opossums
    Phalangers
    Tasmanian wolves

  21. What is syndactyly?
    All five toes are retained
    The foot axis runs between digits two and three
    The foot axis runs through digit three
    Toes two and three are combined in a sheath
    Two toes oppose two others

  22. Which animals have syndactyly?
    All Australian marsupials
    All marsupials
    All opossums
    All South American marsupials
    Some Australian marsupials

  23. What living animals did the first placentals most resemble?
    Anteaters
    Dogs
    Mice
    Shrews
    Xenarthrans

  24. Match each early placental group with its description.
    Early carnivorous placentals
    Giants of late Paleocene with tuberosities on head
    Rabbit-like herbivores with postorbital process
    Shrew-like insectivores that retain jugal
    Tusked herbivores resembling hippos
    Anagalida
    Credontia
    Dinocerata
    Leptictida
    Pantodonts

  25. What are condylarths?
    Early whales
    First burrowers
    First giant mammals
    Primitive carnivores
    Primitive ungulates

  26. What is the current status of the Condylarthra?
    Now includes proboscideans
    Refers only to early artiodactyls
    Refers only to early perissodactyls
    Refers only to early proboscideans
    Rejected for being paraphyletic

  27. Match each mammal order with the group it belongs to.
    Artiodactyla
    Carnivora
    Cetacea
    Chiroptera
    Lagomorpha
    Perissodactyla
    Primates
    Probosidea
    Rodentia
    Sirenia
    Tubilidentata
    Xenarthra
    Afrotheria
    Euarchontoglires
    Laurasiatheria
    None of the above

  28. Match the mammals with the order they belong to.
    Antelopes
    Armadillos
    Bats
    Bears
    Brontotheres
    Camels
    Cats
    Chalicotheres
    Deer
    Dugongs
    Elephants
    Glyptodonts
    Hedgehogs
    Hippopotamuses
    Horses
    Mammoths
    Moles
    Oreodonts
    Pangolins
    Pigs
    Porcupines
    Rabbits
    Rhinos
    Sea cows
    Seals
    Shrews
    Sloths
    Squirrels
    Tapirs
    Weasels
    Whales
    Artiodactyla
    Carnivora
    Cetacea
    Chiroptera
    Insectivora
    Lagomorpha
    Perissodactyla
    Pholidota
    Proboscidea
    Rodentia
    Sirenia
    Xenarthra

  29. Match each character with the group it best describes (even if it only applies to some members of the group).
    Cheek teeth with numerous rings of enamel
    Cloven hoof
    Double-pulley astragalus
    Even number of toes
    Foot axis along digit 3
    Foot axis between digits 3 and 4
    Incisors enlarged into tusks
    Large head on short neck
    Mesaxonic feet
    Odd number of toes
    Paired frontal horns or antlers
    Paraxonic feet
    Possess a long trunk
    Selenodont molars
    Serial eruption of cheek teeth
    Short compact foot bones
    Upper incisors replaced with a pad
    Artiodactyla
    Perissodactyla
    Proboscidea

  30. Match the perissodactyl groups with their descriptions.
    Evolved to walk on a single toe
    Giants of the late Eocene
    Heavy-bodied, often with nasal horns
    Long forelimbs and short hindlimbs
    Often have a short trunk
    Brontotheres
    Chalicotheres
    Horses
    Rhinoceroses
    Tapirs

  31. What are the evolutionary trends in horses leading up to the modern Equus?
    Toward larger size, relatively higher-crowned teeth, and fewer toes
    Toward larger size, relatively higher-crowned teeth, and more toes
    Toward larger size, relatively lower-crowned teeth, and more toes
    Toward smaller size, relatively higher-crowned teeth, and fewer toes
    Toward smaller size, relatively lower-crowned teeth, and more toes

  32. On which continent did most of horse evolution take place?
    Africa
    Australia
    Eurasia
    North America
    South America

  33. During which epoch did horses diversify into a wide variety of browsers and graisers?
    Eocene
    Miocene
    Oligocene
    Paleocene
    Pliocene

  34. How is the early Eocene Diacodexis recognized as an Artiodactyl?
    Bunodont teeth
    Distinctive horns
    Double-pulley astragalus
    Selenodont teeth
    Walked on two toes

  35. Match these artiodactyls with the group they belong to.
    Antelopes
    Camels
    Cattle
    Deer
    Giraffes
    Goats
    Hippopotamuses
    Llamas
    Oreodonts
    Pigs
    Pronghorns
    Sheep
    Ruminantia
    Suiformes
    Tylopoda

  36. Which group of artiodactyls has bunodont teeth?
    Ruminantia
    Suiformes
    Tylopoda

  37. What does the the term Ruminant refer to?
    Chewing the cud
    Elongate distal limb elements
    High-crowned teeth
    Hooves on the feet
    Presence of permanent horns

  38. Match the ruminant families with a description of their horns or antlers.
    Bony core covered by skin
    Forked antlers shed annually
    Horn core covered by keratin sheath that is shed annually
    Horns covered by a permanent un-forked keratin sheath
    Antilocapridae
    Bovidae
    Cervidae
    Giraffidae

  39. What are the most abundant large herbivores preserved in Badlands National Park?
    Camels
    Entelodonts
    Horses
    Oreodonts
    Rhinoceroses

  40. What are the most abundant large herbivores preserved in the Ashfall Fossil Beds of Nebraska?
    Camels
    Entelodonts
    Horses
    Oreodonts
    Rhinoceroses

  41. What characters unite proboscideans, hyraxes, and sirenians into the Paenungulata?
    Diastema in tooth row
    Heavy skulls compared to body size
    Modification to proximal limb bones
    Modified jugal and wrist bones
    Reorientation of pelvis

  42. Which proboscideans have no tusks in the upper jaw but recurved tusks in the lower jaw?
    Deinotheres
    Elephantoids
    Moerotheres
    Paleomastodontids

  43. Which proboscideans erupt the cheek teeth serially?
    Deinotheres
    Elephantoids
    Moerotheres
    Paleomastodontids

  44. Which proboscidean group are mammoths members of?
    Deinotheres
    Elephantoids
    Moerotheres
    Paleomastodontids

  45. Indicate which characters match rodents and lagomorphs.
    2 layers of enamel on incisors
    Fenestrated maxilla
    Longer tail
    More diverse and specialized
    Propalinal jaw motion
    Second pair of incisors behind first
    Transverse jaw motion
    Lagomorpha
    Rodentia

  46. Match the rodents with the group they belong to.
    Beavers
    Capybaras
    Chinchillas
    Earliest rodents
    Guinea pigs
    Hamsters
    Mice
    Porcupines
    Squirrels
    Voles
    Caviamorpha
    Hystricomorpha
    Myomorpha
    Protrogomorpha
    Sciuromorpha

  47. How are hystricognaths distinguished from sciurognaths?
    Ever-growing teeth
    Fewer teeth
    Jaw musculature
    Larger body size
    Thicker, often spiny fur

  48. Where did hystracognath rodents originate?
    Africa
    Australia
    Eurasia
    North America
    South America

  49. Which continent is home to the largest living and fossil rodents?
    Africa
    Australia
    Eurasia
    North America
    South America

  50. Which living rodents have the most primitive, unspecialized dentition?
    Beavers
    Guinea pigs
    Mice
    Porcupines
    Squirrels

  51. What is unique about the mylagaulid rodents?
    Ability to borrow
    Ability to hop on their hind limbs
    Horns on their nose
    Primitive bunodont cheek teeth
    Prismatic ever-growing molars

  52. What is unique about the voles?
    Ability to borrow
    Ability to hop on their hind limbs
    Horns on their nose
    Primitive bunodont cheek teeth
    Prismatic ever-growing molars

  53. Which of the following mammal groups does not have unusually low or variable body temperature?
    Golden moles
    Mammoths
    Monotremes
    Sea cows
    Xenarthrans

  54. What was the largest land mammal of all time?
    Carnivore
    Elephant
    Hippo
    Rhinoceros
    Uintathere

  55. In which group of mammals are metapodials 3 and 4 often fused together into a single cannon bone?
    Artiodactyls
    Carnivores
    Lagomorphs
    Perissodactyls
    Xenarthrans

  56. What created the spiral Daimonelix burrows found in Nebraska?
    Beavers
    Moles
    Oreodonts
    Prairie dogs
    Rabbits

  57. Match the continents when the epoch when they became connected based on major interchanges of terrestrial mammals.
    Africa and Europe
    Asia and India
    North and South America
    Eocene
    Miocene
    Oligocene
    Pleistocene
    Pliocene

  58. Match each mammal group with the time it is first known in South America.
    Cats
    Horses
    Mammoths
    Marsupials
    Monkeys
    Rodents
    Ungulates
    Xenarthrans
    Cretaceous
    Oligocene
    Paleocene
    Pleistocene
    Pliocene

  59. Which North American mammal did not come from South America?
    Armadillo
    Ground sloth
    Opossum
    Peccary
    Porcupine

  60. What mammals were especially decimated by the late Pleistocene extinction?
    Carnivores
    Herbivores
    Large-bodied species
    Small-bodied species
    Tropical species