Practice Questions on Chapter 9

  1. Which group of dinosaurs are birds thought to have arisen from?
    Carnosaurs
    Dromaeosaurs
    Ornithomimids
    Ornithopods
    Oviraptors

  2. What is the age and location of Archaeopteryx?
    Late Jurassic of France
    Late Jurassic of Germany
    Late Triassic of France
    Late Triassic of Germany
    Late Triassic of Texas

  3. What character(s) does Archaeopteryx share with modern birds?
    Feathers
    Fused hand bones
    Keeled sternum
    Lack of teeth
    All of the above

  4. On what basis does Alan Feduccia argue that birds are not close relatives of dinosaurs?
    Different origin of hand structure
    Different origin of hollow bones
    Different origin of skull structure
    Different pelvic structure
    Different shoulder girdle

  5. What is a characteristic of birds that resembles ornithischian dinosaurs but is really a case of convergent evolution?
    Bipedality
    Development of furcula
    Endothermy
    Predentary bone
    Pubis rotated posteriorly

  6. Match each bird or proposed bird with its characteristics.
    Genus Characteristics
    Archaeoraptor
    Confuciusornis
    Hesperornis
    Mononykus
    Protoavis
    Earliest toothless bird
    Flightless swimmer
    Fossil forgery
    Short pincher forelimbs
    Triassic age

  7. Match each bird group with the advanced bird character that first appears in that group.
    Bird group Advanced bird character
    Confuciusornithes
    Enantiornithes
    Hesperornithiformes
    Neognathae
    Neornithes
    Pneumatic foramen in humerus
    Pointed orbital process on quadrate
    Pygostyle
    Strut-like coracoid with triosseal foramen
    Vomers reduced or lost

  8. What distinguishes tinamous from ratites?
    Claws on wings
    Keel on sternum
    Pygostyle
    Synsacrum
    Teeth

  9. Which birds have the ankle axis centered on the calcaneum?
    All birds
    Enantiornithes
    Neognaths
    Neornithes
    Paleognaths

  10. Which birds lost their teeth, but did so separately from modern birds?
    Confuciusornithids
    Enantiornithes
    Jeholornis and Rahonavis
    Paleognaths
    Patagopteryx and Vorona

  11. Which birds are most similar to Archaeopteryx?
    Confuciusornithids
    Enantiornithes
    Jeholornis and Rahonavis
    Paleognaths
    Patagopteryx and Vorona

  12. What timing does the most recent DNA evidence suggest for the divergence of the Neornithes?
    Early Cenozoic
    Early Cretaceous
    Late Cenozoic
    Late Cretaceous
    Late Jurassic

  13. Which bird groups survived the terminal Cretaceous extinction?
    Confuciusornithes and Neornithes
    Enantionorthes and Neornithes
    Hesperornithiformes and Neornithes
    Ichthyornithiformes and Neornithes
    Neognaths and Paleognaths

  14. Match each of these birds with its description or unique character.
    Confuciusornis
    Hesperornis
    Ichthyornis
    Opisthocomus (Hoatzin)
    Polarornis
    Cretaceous Neornithes
    Flightless marine bird
    Flying marine bird
    Juveniles with clawed fingers
    Males with much longer tails than females

  15. Which birds can fly with their wings through water or air?
    Auks
    Cormorants
    Ducks
    Ichthyornithes
    Penguins