Practice Questions on Chapter 8

  1. When do dinosaurs appear in the fossil record?
    Early Jurassic
    Early Permian
    Early Triassic
    Late Permian
    Late Triassic

  2. When do dinosaurs disappear from the fossil record?
    Early Cretaceous
    Early Jurassic
    Late Cretaceous
    Late Jurassic
    Late Triassic

  3. Which of the following is a character that unites all dinosaurs but excludes other archosaurs?
    Advanced mesotarsal joint
    Bipedal stance
    Perforated acetabulum
    Predentary bone
    Two temporal openings in skull

  4. Which tarsal bone is largest in dinosaurs?
    Astragalus
    Calcaneum
    Cuboid
    Cuneiform
    Navicular

  5. Match the following characteristics with the dinosaur orders they correspond to.
    Includes carnivorous dinosaurs
    Ossified tendons in mid section
    Predentary bone
    Pubis extends anterior only
    Pubis with posterior prong
    Ornithischia
    Saurischia

  6. Match each dinosaur group to the order of dinosaurs that it belongs to.
    Dinosaur Group Dinosaur Order
    Ankylosauria
    Carnosauria
    Ceratopsia
    Ceratosauria
    Coelurosauria
    Hadrosauria
    Pachycephalosauria
    Prosauropoda
    Sauropoda
    Stegosauria
    Ornithischia
    Saurischia

  7. Match each dinosaur group to the suborder of dinosaurs that it belongs to.
    Dinosaur Group Dinosaur Suborder
    Ankylosauria
    Carnosauria
    Ceratopsia
    Ceratosauria
    Coelurosauria
    Hadrosauria
    Pachycephalosauria
    Prosauropoda
    Sauropoda
    Stegosauria
    Marginocephalia
    Ornithopoda
    Sauropodomorpha
    Theropoda
    Thyreophora

  8. Match the following characteristics with the saurischian group they correspond to.
    Bowed femur
    Clawed hands
    Compact hind foot with 3 functional toes
    Large lachrymal bone
    Sauropodomorpha
    Theropoda

  9. Match the following characteristics with the theropod group they correspond to.
    Arctometatarsal hindfoot structure
    Body at least 5 meters long
    Extra fenestra in the palate
    Foramen in lachrymal bone
    Forelimbs over 50% the length of hind limbs
    Gap between premaxilla and maxilla
    Pronged chevron bones in tail vertebrae
    Slender hands with long digits 2-3
    Slender head crests in males
    Carnosaurs
    Ceratosaurs
    Coelurosaurs

  10. Match the following characteristics with the coelurosaur groups they correspond to.
    Enormous claw on hind digit two
    Forelimb reduced to two tiny digits
    Giants of the coelurosaurs
    Large head with sharp serrated teeth
    Long arms with clawed hands
    Posteriorly-directed pubis bone (like birds)
    Short snout with deep toothless jaws
    Small head on long neck
    Stiff tail with ossified tendons
    Dromaeosaurs
    Ornithomimids
    Oviraptors
    Tyrannosaurs

  11. What was the general evolutionary trend in dromaeosaurs?
    From carnivory to herbivory
    From herbivory to carnivory
    From larger body size to smaller body size
    From small teeth to large teeth
    From smaller body size to larger body size

  12. Why is Tyrannosaurus now thought to be a coelurosaur rather than a carnosaur?
    Its arctometatarsal hindfoot
    Its curved teeth
    Its hollow bones
    Its large lachrymal bone
    Its small forelimbs

  13. Match the listed characteristics with the sauropodomorph group they apply to.
    Larger in size
    Nasal openings high on skull
    Partly bipedal
    Prosauropoda
    Sauropoda

  14. During which geologic period were sauropods most diverse and abundant?
    Early Cretaceous
    Early Jurassic
    Late Cretaceous
    Late Jurassic
    Late Triassic

  15. How did the sauropodomorphs manage to process their food?
    Their guts contained bacteria that could easily break down the toughest plant foods.
    They ate soft vegetation and invertebrates that were easy to digest.
    They chewed their food to small pieces with their abrasive teeth.
    They swallowed gizzard stones to grind their food.
    They trampled their food into pieces before eating it.

  16. Match each type of vertebra with its description.
    Amphicoelous
    Opisthocoelous
    Procoelous
    Anterior and posterior cavity
    Anterior ball, posterior socket
    Anterior socket, posterior ball

  17. What differentiates the sauropodomorphs from all ornithischians?
    Beak rather than premaxillary teeth
    Bipedality
    Herbivory
    Lack of armor
    Lack of cheek teeth
    Quadrupedality

  18. What was the nature of the earliest ornithischians?
    Bipedal and armored
    Bipedal and not armored
    Quadrupedal and armored
    Quadrupedal and not armored

  19. Match the groups of ornithischian dinosaurs with their descriptions.
    Ancestral ornithischians
    Dome-headed dinosaurs
    Heavily-armored dinosaurs
    Horned dinosaurs
    Plated dinosaurs
    Ankylosauria
    Ceratopsia
    Ornithopoda
    Pachycephalosauria
    Stegosauria

  20. What group do the hadrosaurs belong to?
    Ankylosauria
    Ceratopsia
    Ornithopoda
    Pachycephalosauria
    Stegosauria

  21. What character sets onithopods apart from other ornithischian dinosaurs?
    Lack of armor
    Predentary bone
    Premaxillary bone
    Presence of a beak
    Quadrupedal stance

  22. Which family of onithopods dominated in the late Cretaceous?
    Dryosauridae
    Hadrosauridae
    Heterodonotosauridae
    Hypsilophodontidae
    Iguanodontidae

  23. Which of the following is not a character of hadrosaurs?
    Battery of overlapping teeth
    Beak
    Bipedal
    Head crests
    Tusks

  24. What does the name Thyreophora mean?
    Fused lizard
    Keeled armor
    Plated lizard
    Plated skin
    Shield bearer

  25. Which group dinosaurs had horns on the sides of the head in all known members?
    Ankylosauria
    Ankylosauridae
    Nodosauridae
    Stegosauridae
    Thyreophora

  26. The heads of ankylosaurids are so heavily armored that:
    Neck vertebrae are ossified into a stiff rod
    No neck vertebrae are present
    The forelimbs are longer than the hindlimbs
    The temporal openings are covered over
    There are no teeth in the jaws

  27. During which geologic period were the a) ankylosaurs and b) stegosaurs most abundant and diverse?
    a) Cretaceous, b) Cretaceous
    a) Cretaceous, b) Jurassic
    a) Jurassic, b) Cretaceous
    a) Jurassic, b) Jurassic
    a) Jurassic, b) Triassic

  28. When were marginocephalians most diverse and abundant?
    Early Cretaceous
    Early Jurassic
    Late Cretaceous
    Late Jurassic
    Late Triassic

  29. Which skull bone forms the flaring cheeks of ceratopsians?
    Jugal
    Maxilla
    Nasal
    Postorbital
    Squamosal

  30. Which skull bone forms the single midline horn of ceratopsians?
    Jugal
    Maxilla
    Nasal
    Postorbital
    Squamosal

  31. Which skull bone forms the paired horns of ceratopsians?
    Jugal
    Maxilla
    Nasal
    Postorbital
    Squamosal

  32. What filled the large dome on the heads of pachycephalosaurids?
    Bone
    Dense blood vessels
    Large brain
    Nasal passages
    Sinus passages

  33. What have Goodwin and Horner proposed as the purpose of the dome head of pachycephalosaurids?
    Digging up roots
    Head-butting and flank-butting
    Knocking down trees
    Support for a head ornament
    Thermoregulation

  34. Which dinosaurs appear to have had a semi-spralwing stance in the forelimbs?
    Ceratopsians
    Pachycephalosaurs
    Sauropods
    Stegosaurs
    Theropods

  35. Which dinosaurs have a rostral bone?
    Ankylosaurs
    Ceratopsians
    Pachycephalosaurs
    Sauropods
    Stegosaurs

  36. Which group of modern animals are dinosaur growth rates thought to be most similar to?
    Altricial land birds
    Bony fishes
    Precocial land birds
    Reptiles
    Sharks

  37. Which of the following is not an evidence for group behavior?
    Body ornamentation
    Change in shape during growth
    Large body size
    Mass death assemblages
    Sexual dimorphism

  38. What term refers to animals that maintain a constant body temperature?
    Ecothermy
    Endothermy
    Heterothermy
    Homeothermy
    Poikilothermy

  39. In which of the following ways are nearly all dinosaurs more similar to modern reptiles than modern birds and mammals?
    Bone microstructure
    Geographic distribution
    Posture and gait
    Relative brain size
    Social behavior

  40. Which group of dinosaurs had the largest brains for their body size?
    Carnosaurs
    Ceratopsians
    Coelurosaurs
    Ornithopods
    Sauropods

  41. Does the geographic distribution of dinosaur fossils prove that dinosaurs were endothermic?
    No, because modern endotherms and ectotherms have the same ranges.
    No, because the temperature was warmer during the Mesozoic.
    No, because we don't know where the continents were in the Mesozoic.
    Yes, because the poles are always cold for part of the year.
    Yes, because the temperature was colder during the Mesozoic.

  42. What feature in the bone microstructure of dinosaurs is suggestive of endothermy?
    Growth rings
    Haversian canals
    High calcium content
    High density bone
    High phosphate content

  43. What feature in the bone microstructure of dinosaurs is suggestive of ectothermy?
    Growth rings
    Haversian canals
    High calcium content
    High density bone
    High phosphate content

  44. What percentage of predatory dinosaurs are found at Dinosaur Provincial Park?
    2
    4
    6
    8
    10

  45. What does the sheer size of gigantic sauropods suggest about their metabolism?
    Nothing! Size has no relation to ectothermy or endothermy.
    They needed to be ectotherms to prevent overheating.
    They needed to be endotherms to fight off predators.
    They needed to be endotherms to force blood to the brain.
    They needed to be endotherms to warm such a large body.

  46. What distinguishes the rhamphorhyncoids from the pterodactyloids?
    Head crest
    Lack of teeth
    Long tail
    Prepubis bone
    Pteroid bone

  47. Which digits are elongate to support the flight membrane in pterosaurs?
    1 only
    1-4
    2-5
    4 only
    5 only

  48. Where is the pteroid bone located?
    At the hip
    At the shoulder
    In back of the wrist
    In front of the wrist
    In the neck

  49. What appears to have been the function of the pteroid bone?
    To help support the anterior wing membrane
    To help support the main wing membrane
    To lock the forelimb bones in place
    To lock the hindlimb bones in place
    To support the body organs

  50. What appears to have been the function of the prepubis bone?
    To help support the anterior wing membrane
    To help support the main wing membrane
    To lock the forelimb bones in place
    To lock the hindlimb bones in place
    To support the body organs

  51. Match each pterosaur with its description.
    Pteranodon
    Pterodaustro
    Quetzalcoatlus
    Rhamphorhynchus
    Large head crest
    Largest flyer of all time
    Long tail
    Numerous thin lower teeth

  52. What preserved structure suggests that pterosaurs were endothermic?
    Feathers
    Hair
    Heart
    Pneumatic bone
    Wing membrane

  53. What type of reptilian skull do turtles have?
    Anapsid
    Diapsid
    Euryapsid
    Parapsid
    Synapsid

  54. Which of the following is not a trend in turtles?
    Increasing ability to retract the head into the shell.
    Increasing elongation of distal limb elements
    Increasing encapsulation of the ear in bone
    Increasing fusion of skull bones
    Increasing inclusion of bony elements into the shell

  55. Which bony elements are never incorporated into the turtle carapace?
    Dermal plates
    Pelvic girdle
    Ribs
    Shoulder girdle
    Trunk vertebrae

  56. Which bone supports the eardrum in turtles?
    Epipterygoid
    Exoccipital
    Opisthotic
    Pterygoid
    Quadrate

  57. Which group of turtles appeared earliest in the fossil record?
    Australochelidae
    Casichelydia
    Cryptodira
    Pleurodira
    Proganochelydia

  58. Which group is referred to as the side-neck turtles?
    Australochelidae
    Casichelydia
    Cryptodira
    Pleurodira
    Proganochelydia

  59. How do cryptodires retract the head?
    By a detachment in the neck vertebrae
    By an anterior shift in the plastron
    By retraction of the entire vertebral column
    With a horizontal bend of the neck
    With a vertical bend of the neck

  60. Where are pleurodires found living today?
    Australia only
    Eurasia only
    Southern continents
    Tropical islands
    Worldwide

  61. What distinguishes the Eusuchia from earlier crocodiles?
    Bony scutes along backbone
    Nasal opening in anterior position
    Nasal opening in posterior position
    Secondary palate includes maxilla
    Secondary palate includes pterygoid

  62. When were marine crocodiles most abundant?
    Cretaceous
    Jurassic
    Neogene
    Paleogene
    Triassic

  63. What distinguishes the sphenodonts from the squamatans?
    Fusion of quadrate to skull
    Loss of lower temporal bar
    Loss of upper temporal bar
    Mesokinetic joints
    Thecodont teeth

  64. What kind of joints occur between the skull and braincase in lizards?
    Mandibular joints
    Mesokinetic joints
    Metakinetic joints
    Streptostylic joints

  65. Match the following lizards with the group they belong to.
    Chameleons
    Limbless burrowing lizards
    Lizards with sleek bodies and short limbs
    Lizards with suction cup toes and thick fatty tails
    Monitor lizards
    Mosasaurs
    Primitive forms
    Amphisbaenids
    Anguimorphs
    Gekkos
    Iguanids
    Scincomorphs

  66. Which of the following is not a character of snakes?
    Extra articulation facets on vertebrae
    Large number of vertebrae
    Many joints between skull bones
    Reduction in skull bones
    Two distinct temporal openings

  67. When did snakes first appear in the fossil record?
    Cretaceous
    Jurassic
    Neogene
    Paleogene
    Triassic

  68. What bone contains the fangs of venomous snakes?
    Ectopterygoid
    Maxilla
    Palatine
    Prefrontal
    Premaxilla

  69. Which reptiles have a distinctly triradiate shoulder girdle?
    Crocodilians
    Dinosaurs
    Pterosaurs
    Squamatans
    Turtles

  70. Which marine reptiles used their limbs as their primary propulsion devices?
    Ichthyosaurs
    Mosasaurs
    Placodonts
    Plesiosaurs

  71. Which marine reptiles appear specifically adapted for preying on ammonoids?
    Ichthyosaurs
    Mosasaurs
    Nothosaurs
    Placodonts
    Plesiosaurs

  72. Which marine reptiles were incapable of climbing onto land and gave birth to live young in the ocean?
    Ichthyosaurs
    Mosasaurs
    Nothosaurs
    Placodonts
    Plesiosaurs

  73. Which marine reptile group consists of both short and long-necked forms, some with the neck longer than the rest of the body?
    Ichthyosaurs
    Mosasaurs
    Nothosaurs
    Placodonts
    Plesiosaurs

  74. Which marine reptiles have a double-jointed quadrate?
    Ichthyosaurs
    Mosasaurs
    Nothosaurs
    Placodonts
    Plesiosaurs

  75. Which marine reptiles were present during the Cretaceous but went extinct before the terminal Cretaceous extinction?
    Ichthyosaurs
    Mosasaurs
    Nothosaurs
    Placodonts
    Plesiosaurs