Practice Questions on Chapter 7

  1. Identify the shark groups that match the characteristics.
    Deeply embedded spines with comb-like nodes
    Distinctive long spine just behind the head
    Dominant sharks of Triassic and Jurassic
    Fins supported by ceratotrichia
    Four ridged teeth in each jaw half for crushing mollusks
    Group of freshwater sharks
    Hyostylic jaws and wide gape
    Large set of tooth whorls in lower jaw
    Long pectoral fins function like wings
    Males have shelf-line spine overhanging head
    Metapterygial axis on pectoral fins
    Narrow-based fins and diphycercal tail
    Nerve cord encased in calcified vertebrae
    Small sharks with boubous bodies
    Teeth with two large cusps and small central cusp
    Ctenacanthiformes
    Eugenodontiformes
    Holocephali
    Hybodontiformes
    Neoselachia
    Petalodontiformes
    Symmorida
    Xenacanthiformes

  2. Which chondrichthian group belongs to the Subterbranchialia rather than the Elasmobranchii?
    Eugenodontiformes
    Holocephali
    Neoselachia
    Petalodontiformes
    Symmorida

  3. When did the elasmobranch and subterbranchialian lineages of Chondrichthyes diverge?
    Cretaceous
    Devonian
    Ordovician
    Permian
    Triassic

  4. Match the chondrichthian groups with their jaw type.
    Early sharks
    Holocephalans
    Hybodonts
    Neoselachians
    Amphistylic
    Autostylic
    Hyostylic

  5. What was the character of early sharks in comparison with neoselachians?
    Broad-based fins
    Hyostylic jaws
    Lack of armor
    Low heterocercal tail
    Ventral mouth

  6. What was the character of early shark teeth in comparison with neoselachians?
    Broken ones were not replaced.
    They grew in whorls.
    They had multiple cusps.
    They were flat for crushing shellfish.
    They were made of calcified cartilage.

  7. Match the three major shark grades with the time of their dominance.
    Cladoselachians, Xenacanths, ctenacanths, etc.
    Hybodonts
    Neoselachians
    Early and middle Mesozoic
    Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic
    Middle and late Paleozoic

  8. What character defines the Euselachii?
    Autostylic jaw
    Claspers
    Flattened teeth
    Homocercal tail
    Tribasal pectoral fin

  9. Which of the following shark groups does not belong to the Euselachii?
    Ctenacanths
    Hybodonts
    Neoselachians
    Symmorids
    Xenacanths

  10. Which chondrichthian group is represented in the Green River Shale of Wyoming?
    Batoidea
    Galeomorpha
    Hexanchiformes
    Squaliformes
    Squatiniformes

  11. What group do the batoids belong to?
    Ctenacanthiformes
    Holocephali
    Hybodonta
    Neoselachii
    Symmorida

  12. What is the main diet of the batoids?
    Mollusks
    Fish
    Corals
    Benthic algae
    Plankton

  13. Which state is known for having the most exceptional early fossil chondrichthian locality?
    Florida
    Louisiana
    Montana
    New York
    South Dakota

  14. Match the actinopterygians with the grade they belong to.
    Advanced Neopterygeans
    Bichir
    Bowfin
    Gar pike
    Paddlefish
    Paleoniscoids
    Primitive Neopterygeans
    Salmon
    Sea horses
    Sturgeon
    Chondrostean
    Holostean
    Teleostean

  15. Identify the following characteristics as applying to primitive (chondrostean) or advanced (teleostean) actinopterygians.
    Autostylic jaws
    Had lungs
    Had swim bladders
    Heterocercal tail with a hypaxial lobe
    Homocercal tail
    Hyostylic jaws
    Long inflexible jaws
    Many gaps in head bones
    Pelvic fins ventral to pectoral fins
    Thick Ganoid scales
    Toothed maxilla
    Vertebrae highly ossified
    Well-separated pectoral and pelvic fins
    Chondrostean
    Teleostean

  16. Indicate which actinopterygian groups have the following characteristics.
    Air sac extends into occipital region of skull
    Body usually short and tall
    Hypural 1 of tail with free anterior end
    Leaf-shaped planktonic larval form
    Long slender bodies with no distinct caudal fin
    Muscular control of pharyngeal toothplates
    Primary teeth on tongue and palate
    Strong spiny fin rays
    Tail fully homocercal
    Weberian ossicles
    Elopomorphs
    Neoteleosts
    Osteoglossomorphs
    Otocephalans

  17. Match these Teleosts with the group they belong to.
    Carp
    Cod
    Flat fishes
    Flying fishes
    Guppies
    Herring
    Perch
    Pike
    Sea horses
    Trout
    Atherinomorphs
    Esociformes
    Otocephalans
    Paracanthopterygians
    Percomorphs
    Salmoniformes

  18. In the nested hierarchy of actinopterygian groups, which of the following groups is the most restricted?
    Acanthomorpha
    Euteleostei
    Neopterygii
    Neoteleostei
    Teleostei

  19. What is the main propulsion device in percomorphs?
    Body
    Mouth
    Pectoral fins
    Pelvic fins
    Tail fin

  20. What is the swim bladder used for?
    Boyancy control
    Digestion
    Propulsion
    Respiration
    Urine collection

  21. Which fishes have a swim bladder?
    Advanced actinopterygians
    Advanced chondrichthians
    Primitive actinopterygians
    Primitive chondrichthians
    All of the above