Practice Questions on Chapter 7
Identify the shark groups that match the characteristics.
Deeply embedded spines with comb-like nodes
Distinctive long spine just behind the head
Dominant sharks of Triassic and Jurassic
Fins supported by ceratotrichia
Four ridged teeth in each jaw half for crushing mollusks
Group of freshwater sharks
Hyostylic jaws and wide gape
Large set of tooth whorls in lower jaw
Long pectoral fins function like wings
Males have shelf-line spine overhanging head
Metapterygial axis on pectoral fins
Narrow-based fins and diphycercal tail
Nerve cord encased in calcified vertebrae
Small sharks with boubous bodies
Teeth with two large cusps and small central cusp
Which chondrichthian group belongs to the Subterbranchialia rather than the Elasmobranchii?
When did the elasmobranch and subterbranchialian lineages of Chondrichthyes diverge?
Match the chondrichthian groups with their jaw type.
What was the character of early sharks in comparison with neoselachians?
Lack of armor
Low heterocercal tail
What was the character of early shark teeth in comparison with neoselachians?
Broken ones were not replaced.
They grew in whorls.
They had multiple cusps.
They were flat for crushing shellfish.
They were made of calcified cartilage.
Match the three major shark grades with the time of their dominance.
Cladoselachians, Xenacanths, ctenacanths, etc.
Early and middle Mesozoic
Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic
Middle and late Paleozoic
What character defines the Euselachii?
Tribasal pectoral fin
Which of the following shark groups does
belong to the Euselachii?
Which chondrichthian group is represented in the Green River Shale of Wyoming?
What group do the batoids belong to?
What is the main diet of the batoids?
Which state is known for having the most exceptional early fossil chondrichthian locality?
Match the actinopterygians with the grade they belong to.
Identify the following characteristics as applying to primitive (chondrostean) or advanced (teleostean) actinopterygians.
Had swim bladders
Heterocercal tail with a hypaxial lobe
Long inflexible jaws
Many gaps in head bones
Pelvic fins ventral to pectoral fins
Thick Ganoid scales
Vertebrae highly ossified
Well-separated pectoral and pelvic fins
Indicate which actinopterygian groups have the following characteristics.
Air sac extends into occipital region of skull
Body usually short and tall
Hypural 1 of tail with free anterior end
Leaf-shaped planktonic larval form
Long slender bodies with no distinct caudal fin
Muscular control of pharyngeal toothplates
Primary teeth on tongue and palate
Strong spiny fin rays
Tail fully homocercal
Match these Teleosts with the group they belong to.
In the nested hierarchy of actinopterygian groups, which of the following groups is the most restricted?
What is the main propulsion device in percomorphs?
What is the swim bladder used for?
Which fishes have a swim bladder?
All of the above