Practice Questions on Chapter 5

  1. Match each part of the amniotic egg with its description.
    Allantois
    Amnion
    Chorion
    Yolk sac
    Outer protective layer
    Reservoir of food
    Stores waste materials
    Surrounds embryo with water

  2. Indicate which characters apply to amphibians vs. reptiles.
    Amniotic egg
    Atlas/axis standardized
    Calcaneum and astragalus
    Deeper skull
    Digits usually clawed
    Distinct cerebral hemispheres
    Double occipital condyle
    More skull bones
    Otic notch
    Palatal tusks
    Pleurocentrum standardized as main centrum
    Single jaw muscle
    Single occipital condyle
    Small stapes
    Small stapes directed dorsally
    Two or more sacral vertebrae
    Amphibians
    Reptiles

  3. What is the age of the oldest known fossilized reptile eggs?
    Devonian
    Mississippian
    Pennsylvanian
    Permian
    Triassic

  4. What is the age and location of the earliest known reptile fossils?
    Devonian of England
    Mississippian of Kentucky
    Pennsylvanian of Nova Scotia
    Permian of Texas
    Triassic of Switzerland

  5. What is the nature of the earliest known reptiles?
    Large semiaquatic carnivores
    Large semiaquatic herbivores
    Large terrestrial herbivores
    Medium-sized bipedal carnivores
    Small lizard-like insectivores

  6. What is the purpose of the pterygoideus muscle?
    Hold the jaws tightly together
    Leap from a resting position
    Lift the head rapidly
    Shut the jaws quickly
    Thrust the neck from side to side

  7. Match the four basic reptile groups with the characters they are based upon.
    Anapsids
    Diapsids
    Euryapsids
    Synapsids
    No temporal openings
    One temporal opening above postorbital-squamosal connection
    One temporal opening below postorbital-squamosal connection
    Temporal openings above and below postorbital-squamosal connection

  8. Match the following animals to the basic reptile group they belong to or arose from.
    Birds
    Crocodiles
    Dinosaurs
    Earliest reptiles
    Ichthyosaurs
    Lizards
    Mammals
    Mesosaurids
    Pelycosaurs
    Plesiosaurs
    Snakes
    Therapsids
    Turtles
    Anapsids
    Diapsids
    Euryapsids
    Synapsids

  9. Match the following anapsid reptile groups with their characters.
    First aquatic reptiles
    First bipedal reptiles
    Giants of the Permian
    Had crude form of tooth replacement
    Had quadratojugal "horns"
    Heavy pillar-like limbs
    Knobby projections on head
    Lizard-like insectivores
    Multiple rows of teeth on jaws
    Needle-like teeth acted as a sieve
    Sometimes had a small temporal opening
    Survived into the Triassic
    Bolosaurids
    Captorhinids
    Mesosaurids
    Millerettids
    Pareiasaurids
    Procolophonids

  10. Match each late Paleozoic diapsid reptile with its characteristics.
    Ancestor or close relative of lepidosaurs
    Earliest known archosauromorph
    The earliest known diapsid, with long limbs
    The first gliding reptile
    Coelurosauravus
    Petrolacosaurus
    Protorosaurus
    Youngina

  11. Match each Pelycosaur group with its characteristics.
    Earliest pelycosaurs
    Sail-back carnivores
    Sail-back herbivores
    Edaphosaurs
    Ophiacodonts
    Sphenacodontids

  12. Match each therapsid group with its characteristics.
    Bony protuberances on head
    Direct ancestors of mammals
    Dominant early Triassic carnivores
    Dominant late Permian carnivores
    Earliest therapsids
    Evidence of head-butting
    Round fossilized in burrows
    Stocky pig-like herbivores
    Biarmosuchids
    Cynodonts
    Dicynodonts
    Dinocephalians
    Gorgonopsians

  13. Which mammalian character is not possessed by any synapsid?
    Adductor fossa on lower jaw
    Confluent orbit and temporal opening
    Double occipital condyle
    Secondary palate
    Three ear bones

  14. Match each reptile group with its reptilian subclass.
    Captorhinids
    Cynodonts
    Dicynodonts
    Dinocephalians
    Gorgonopsians
    Ophiacodonts
    Pareiasaurids
    Procolophonids
    Sphenacodontids
    Anapsid
    Diapsid
    Euryapsid
    Synapsid (Pelycosaur)
    Synapsid (Therapsid)

  15. Match each notable reptile with its reptilian subclass.
    Coelurosauravus
    Dimetrodon
    Edaphosaurus
    Lystrosaurus
    Moschops
    Protorosaurus
    Youngina
    Anapsid
    Diapsid
    Euryapsid
    Synapsid (Pelycosaur)
    Synapsid (Therapsid)

  16. Match each notable reptile with its description.
    May have engaged in head butting
    Most abundant tetrapod in earliest Triassic
    Sail-back carnivore
    Sail-back herbivore
    The first gliding reptile
    Coelurosauravus
    Dimetrodon
    Edaphosaurus
    Lystrosaurus
    Moschops

  17. When were pelycosaurs most abundant?
    Early Permian
    Early Triassic
    Late Pennsylvanian
    Late Permian
    Late Triassic

  18. What is usually the diet of animals with a propalinal jaw motion?
    Fish
    Insects
    Large thick-skinned animals
    Plants
    Small active animals

  19. Which group of reptiles split off first from the stem group of all the others?
    Anapsids
    Diapsids
    Euryapsids
    Synapsids

  20. Which group of reptiles has never been found in Paleozoic sediments?
    Anapsids
    Diapsids
    Euryapsids
    Synapsids

  21. What was the nature of the world during the Permian period?
    High sea level, dry conditions, many continents
    High sea level, dry conditions, one supercontinent
    High sea level, wet conditions, many continents
    Low sea level, dry conditions, many continents
    Low sea level, dry conditions, one supercontinent

  22. Where were North America and Europe during the late Paleozoic?
    At middle northern latitudes (like today)
    At middle southern latitudes
    Near the equator
    Near the north pole
    Near the south pole

  23. Which vertebrate class was lost during the late Permian extinction?
    Acanthodii
    Agnatha
    Chondrichthyes
    Osteichthyes
    Placodermi

  24. Which reptile group was most dominant just before the late Permian extinction?
    Anapsids
    Diapsids
    Euryapsids
    Synapsids (Pelycosaurs)
    Synapsids (Therapsids)