Practice Questions on Chapter 4

  1. Which sense is similarly useful in and out of the water?
    Hearing
    Smell
    Vibration sensation
    Vision

  2. What is the term "labyrinthodont" named for?
    Ear
    Feet
    Skull
    Teeth
    Vertebrae

  3. What was the pectoral girdle attached to in lobe-fin fishes?
    Cervical vertebrae
    Lower jaw
    Ribs
    Skull
    Sternum

  4. Indicate which characters apply to early amphibians and their fish ancestors.
    Cleithrum larger than scapulocoracoid
    Have otic notch on back of skull
    Kinetic skull with multiple joints
    Large eyes
    Large opercular bones
    Left and right pelvic bones joined
    Long ribs with double heads
    Long snout and short otic region
    One external nostril
    Pectoral fin/limbs larger than pelvic
    Pectoral girdle attached to skull
    Pelvic girdle attached to vertebral column
    Scapulocoracoid larger than cleithrum
    Short snout and long otic region
    Skull taller than wide
    Skull wider than tall
    Solid skull with simple jaw joint
    Two external nostrils
    Zygapophyses present on vertebrae
    Early amphibians
    Osteolepiform fishes

  5. Match the bones of the shoulder joint in early amphibians and their fish ancestors with their characteristics.
    Anterior to scapulocoracoid
    Articulates with humerus
    Dorsal, links girdle to fish skull
    Endochondral origin
    Main dorsal support bone
    Main ventral support bone
    Ventral to scapulocoracoid
    Anocleithrum
    Clavicle
    Cleithrum
    Interclavicle
    Scapulocoracoid

  6. What do lateral-line openings in amphibian bones suggest?
    A terrestrial habit
    An aquatic habit
    Better smell
    Cutaneous respiration
    Poison skin glands

  7. How many toes are present on each foot in Acanthostega?
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8

  8. How many toes are present on each foot in most advanced amphibians?
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8

  9. Which skull bone of amphibians forms the hinge joint with the lower jaw?
    Articular
    Jugal
    Palatine
    Quadrate
    Stapes

  10. Which skull bone of amphibians passes sounds to the inner ear?
    Articular
    Jugal
    Palatine
    Quadrate
    Stapes

  11. Match each amphibian subclass with its characteristics.
    Characteristics Subclass
    Includes large-bodied forms
    Labyrinthodont teeth
    Pedicellate teeth
    Spool-shaped vertebrae
    Stem group of tetrapods
    Survived to the present
    Labyrinthodontia
    Lepospondyli
    Lissamphibia

  12. Match each amphibian order with its subclass.
    Order Subclass
    Aistopoda
    Albanerpetontida
    Anthracosauria
    Anura
    Gymnophonia
    Ichthyostegalia
    Microsauria
    Nectridea
    Temnospondyli
    Urodela
    Labyrinthodontia
    Lepospondyli
    Lissamphibia

  13. Match the anthracosaurs and temnospondyls with their characteristics.
    Broad flat vomer bones on palate
    Double occipital condyle
    Gave rise to lepospondyls
    Gave rise to lissamphibians
    Gave rise to reptiles
    Had an early Mesozoic radiation
    Intercentrum dominates over pleurocentra
    Large palatine vacuities
    Low flat skull
    Most abundant Carboniferous tetrapods
    Pleurocentrum as large or larger than intercentrum
    Solid palate closed over with bone
    Tall deep skull
    Anthracosaurs
    Temnospondyls

  14. Match each amphibian group with the timeframe when its fossils have been found.
    Amphibian Group Timeframe
    Anthracosaurs
    Ichthyostegalids
    Lepospondyls
    Lissamphibians
    Temnospondyls
    Cenozoic only
    Late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic
    Late Paleozoic only
    Late Paleozoic to present
    Mesozoic to present

  15. Which group(s) of amphibians included aquatic forms?
    Anthracosaurs
    Lepospondyls
    Lissamphibians
    Temnospondyls
    All of the above

  16. Match the lepospondyl groups with their characteristics.
    Extra joints in skull
    Limbless
    Mostly aquatic swimmers
    Mostly terrestrial walkers
    Solid head for burrowing
    Some with boomerang-shaped skulls
    Symmetrical neural and haemal arches
    Aistopoda
    Microsauria
    Nectridea

  17. Match the lissamphibian groups with their characters.
    Fused frontal bones
    Have urostyle
    Large tympanum
    Large, flat, open skull
    Limbless
    No otic notch or tympanum
    Ribs lost
    Solid head for burrowing
    Two fused neck vertebrae
    Ulna and radius fused
    Use internal fertilization
    Albanerpetontids
    Anurans
    Gymnophonids
    Urodelans

  18. Which early amphibian appears to have been an herbivore?
    Crassigyrinus
    Diadectes
    Eryops
    Seymouria
    Triadobatrachus

  19. Which fossil appears to be a primitive anuran?
    Crassigyrinus
    Diadectes
    Eryops
    Seymouria
    Triadobatrachus

  20. What factor probably led to the huge radiation of amphibians in the early Cenozoic?
    The development of tropical forests
    The diversification of flowering plants and insects
    The expansion of aquatic habitats
    The extinction of dinosaurs and other reptiles
    The invention of poisonous skin glands