Practice Questions on Chapter 3

  1. Which geologic period is known as the Age of Fishes?
    Cambrian
    Carboniferous
    Devonian
    Ordovician
    Silurian

  2. Which skeletal material is made of solid crystalline apatite?
    Dentine
    Dermal bone
    Enamel
    Endochondral bone
    Endodermal bone

  3. Which skeletal material has a cartilage precursor?
    Dentine
    Dermal bone
    Enamel
    Endochondral bone
    Endodermal bone

  4. Which group of fishes has large eyes, suggesting a deep-water habitat for most species?
    Acanthodians
    Chondrichthyes
    Osteichthyes
    Ostracoderms
    Placoderms

  5. Which group of fishes has prismatic ossified cartilage?
    Acanthodians
    Chondrichthyes
    Osteichthyes
    Ostracoderms
    Placoderms

  6. Which list of fish groups represents the closeness of their relatedness to tetrapods (from most-closely to least-closely related)?
    Osteichthyes, Acanthodii, Chondrichthyes, Placodermi, Agnatha
    Osteichthyes, Acanthodii, Placodermi, Chondrichthyes, Agnatha
    Osteichthyes, Chondrichthyes, Acanthodii, Placodermi, Agnatha
    Osteichthyes, Chondrichthyes, Placodermi, Acanthodii, Agnatha
    Osteichthyes, Placodermi, Chondrichthyes, Acanthodii, Agnatha

  7. Which of the following is a typical characteristic of benthic fishes?
    Fusiform body
    Homocercal tail
    Lateral eyes
    Ventral armor
    Ventral mouth

  8. Match each group of agnathans with its description.
    Anaspida
    Conodonta
    Cyclostomata
    Heterostraci
    Osteostraci
    Thelodonti
    Benthic fishes with massive head shields that covered the gills
    Large dorsal and ventral body shields, diverse body shapes
    Large eyes and small dentine elements on a slender body
    Limited armor and lozenge-shaped scales
    Limited armor and unique pectoral spines supporting crude paired fins
    No hard parts, includes the only surviving agnathans

  9. Which group of agnathans had the best-developed pectoral fins and probably gave rise to gnathostomes?
    Anaspida
    Conodonta
    Cyclostomata
    Heterostraci
    Osteostraci
    Thelodonti

  10. Which group of gnathostome fishes has heavy dermal armor like the ostracoderms?
    Acanthodians
    Chondrichthyes
    Osteichthyes
    Placoderms

  11. Of the gill arches that presumably were converted to jaw elements, match them to the names of those jaw and jaw support elements.
    Jaw Elements Gill Arch Elements
    Ceratohyal
    Hyomandibular
    Meckelís Cartilage
    Palatoquadrate
    Anterior and dorsal
    Anterior and ventral
    Posterior and dorsal
    Posterior and ventral

  12. Match each characteristic or group with its corresponding jaw type.
    Vertebrate Group or Characteristic Jaw Hinge Type
    Advanced chondrichthyes
    Advanced osteichthyes
    Allows the most flexibility between palatoquadrate and braincase
    Hyomandibular forms sole support for palatoquadrate
    Hyomandibular is not involved at all
    Most primitive jawed fishes, including Placoderms
    Most tetrapods
    Palatoquadrate and hyomandibular articulate with the braincase
    Palatoquadrate articulates tightly with braincase
    Primitive chondrichthyes
    Primitive condition
    Amphistylic
    Autostylic
    Hyostylic

  13. Match each placoderm group with its characteristics.
    Characteristics Placoderm Group
    Dorsoventrally flattened, short thoracic shield with spines
    Flat-bottomed with large thoracic shield and pectoral fins covered in bony plates
    Large head and trunk shields joined by flexible joint
    Minimal body armor, tapered fusiform body with ventral claspers
    Skate-like body and fins covered with dermal denticles
    Antiarchi
    Arthrodira
    Petalichthyda
    Ptyctodontida
    Rhenanida

  14. Which group of placoderms included the largest predators of the Devonian?
    Antiarchi
    Arthrodira
    Petalichthyda
    Ptyctodontida
    Rhenanida

  15. Which group of placoderms was the most diverse?
    Antiarchi
    Arthrodira
    Petalichthyda
    Ptyctodontida
    Rhenanida

  16. What was the time range of the placoderms?
    Cambrian through Devonian
    Devonian through Permian
    Devonian through Triassic
    Mostly Devonian
    Ordovician through Devonian

  17. What are the characteristics of primitive sharks (compared with modern sharks)?
    Broad-based fins, amphistylic jaws, terminal mouth
    Broad-based fins, amphistylic jaws, ventral mouth
    Broad-based fins, hyostylic jaws, terminal mouth
    Narrow-based fins, amphistylic jaws, terminal mouth
    Narrow-based fins, amphistylic jaws, ventral mouth

  18. What is the time range of acanthodians?
    Devonian only
    Devonian to present
    Devonian to Triassic
    Ordovician to Permian
    Ordovician to Triassic

  19. Which of the following is a characteristic of Acanthodii but not Osteichthyes?
    Bony axial skeleton
    Braincase more completely ossified
    Dorsal and ventral spines
    Palate covered with dermal bones
    Regular tooth replacement

  20. Match each characteristic with the group of Osteichthyes it applies to.
    Cosmine scales with thin enamel
    Double dorsal fin in primitive forms
    Fleshy fins supported by bony elements
    Ganoid scales with heavy enamel
    Have squamosal bones in cheek
    More diverse during Devonian Period
    Most diverse group of fishes after Devonian Period
    Single dorsal fin in primitive forms
    Slender fins supported by bony rays
    Actinopterygii
    Sarcopterygii

  21. Match each character or member with the Sarcopterygian group it belongs to.
    Closest relatives of tetrapods
    Coelocanths
    Heavy bodied with lobate fins and three-part tail
    Includes a "living fossil"
    Lungfishes
    No living members
    Paired fins with asymmetrical bony axis
    Paired fins with symmetrical bony axis
    Actinista
    Dipnoi
    Rhipidistia

  22. Why are fishes so well represented in the Devonian fossil record?
    Fish developed jaws in the Devonian.
    Most Devonian fishes had hard parts.
    New groups of marine plants arose in the Devonian, offering more food.
    Sea level rose during the Devonian.
    There were more shallow seas in the Devonian than ever before.

  23. What are the differences between Thelodont faunas of the Silurian and Devonian periods?
    There is only one in the Silurian but at least five different ones in the Devonian.
    They are more cosmopolitan in the Silurian and more provincial in the Devonian.
    They are more provincial in the Silurian and more cosmopolitan in the Devonian.
    They are mostly in the northern hemisphere in the Silurian and the southern hemisphere in the Devonian.
    They are mostly in the southern hemisphere in the Silurian and the northern hemisphere in the Devonian.

  24. Why are Devonian fishes so well-reserved in Orcanian Lake deposits of the Old Red Sandstone in Scotland?
    Burial in a catastrophic landslide
    Drying up of the entire lake
    High sedimentation rate and anoxic bottom conditions
    Invasion of the sea, killing the freshwater fishes
    Lack of any predators or scavengers

  25. Match each group of fishes with the vertebrate class it belongs to.
    Actinista
    Actinopterygii
    Anaspida
    Antiarchi
    Arthrodira
    Cladoselache
    Conodonta
    Cyclostomata
    Dipnoi
    Heterostraci
    Osteostraci
    Petalichthyda
    Ptyctodontida
    Rhenanida
    Rhipidistia
    Sarcopterygii
    Thelodonti
    Acanthodii
    Agnatha
    Chondrichthyes
    Osteichthyes
    Placodermi