Practice Questions on Chapter 2

  1. Which rock type is most likely to contain fossils?
    Basalt
    Granite
    Marble
    Shale
    Slate

  2. What term refers to the study of processes that occur between the death of an organism and its final state in the rock?
    Ichnology
    Ichthyology
    Limnology
    Osteology
    Taphonomy

  3. What is a disarticulated skeleton?
    One that includes soft anatomy such as skin
    One that is associated with trace fossils
    One that is complete from hear to tail
    One that is heavily weathered, often beyond recognition
    One with the bones disconnected or incomplete

  4. What is an example of a trace fossil?
    Dinosaur bone
    Dinosaur egg
    Dinosaur footprint
    Dinosaur skin impression
    Dinosaur tooth

  5. In which environment are fossils most commonly preserved?
    Deep marine
    Desert
    Glacial
    River
    Shallow marine

  6. If fossils of a small animal are found in a wide variety of environments but for only a brief span of time, what is that fossils most useful for?
    Biostratigraphy
    Museum exhibits
    Paleobiogeography
    Paleoecology
    None of the above

  7. What name did Alfred Wegener give to his proposed late Paleozoic supercontinent?
    Eurasia
    Gondwana
    Pangea
    Panthalassa
    Rodinia

  8. On what modern continents can fossils of Glossopteris, Lystrosaurus, and Cynognathus be found?
    Africa, Antarctica, Asia, and Australia
    Africa, Antarctica, Australia, India, and South America
    Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America
    Asia, Europe, and India
    North and South America

  9. Why does East Africa have such rich terrestrial fossils deposits?
    Africa is the place of origin of all vertebrate groups.
    Downdropped valleys have filled with sediment.
    The highest mountains in the world are nearby.
    The ocean invaded then retreated from the area.
    There was a catastrophic flood that killed many animals.

  10. What geologic period do the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian periods correspond to?
    Cambrian
    Carboniferous
    Cretaceous
    Devonian
    Permian

  11. What type of group shares a common ancestor that has the defining character for the group, but also contains members that have lost that character?
    Convergent
    Divergent
    Monophyletic
    Paraphyletic
    Polyphyletic

  12. Match each vertebrate class or superclass with the type of group it represents.
    Agnatha
    Amphibia
    Aves
    Chondrichthyes
    Mammalia
    Osteichthyes
    Pisces
    Placodermi
    Reptilia
    Tetrapoda
    Monophyletic
    Paraphyletic
    Polyphyletic

  13. Match the following evolutionary terms with their definitions.
    Term Definition
    Adaptive radiation
    Allopatric speciation
    Convergent evolution
    Divergent evolution
    Evolutionary trend
    Extinction
    Iterative evolution
    Macroevolution
    Microevolution
    Neoteny
    Preadaptation
    Sympatric speciation
    A body structure switching from one function to another
    A juvenile trait being retained into adulthood
    A single population of a species diverging into two species
    A species giving rise to morphologically distinct species
    Development of an entirely new body form or structure
    Distantly related species coming to look superficially alike
    Isolated populations of a species becoming different species
    Long-term evolutionary change in the same direction
    One lineage quickly giving rise to many descendant species
    One lineage repeatedly giving rise to similar descendants
    Small-scale evolutionary changes in a lineage
    The death of all members of a species

  14. What are similar-looking species among marsupial and placental mammals an evolutionary example of?
    Analogy
    Convergent evolution
    Divergent evolution
    Homology
    Iterative evolution

  15. What are the pelvis and femur bones of whales and snakes an example of?
    Embryological similarities
    Inheritance of acquired characters
    Iterative evolution
    Punctuated equilibrium
    Vestigial organs