Tables to accompany "Patterns of Evolution in Ischyromys and Titanotheriomys (Rodentia: Ischyromyidae) from Oligocene Deposits of Western North America," a thesis presented by Timothy Howard Heaton to the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the subject of Geology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, August, 1988.

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Table 1. List and description of wear stages assigned.


Wear stage  Description
    0       Unerupted but visible
    1       Partially erupted
    2       Fully erupted but unworn
    3       Cusp peaks worn but not down to ridge saddles
    4       Ridge saddles worn but valley cirques not migrated
    5       Valleys cirques migrated but all valleys continuous
    6       Posterior lingual valley forming an island
    7       Posterior lingual valley worn away
    8       All valleys worn away but tooth margins distinct
    9       Wear so great that tooth margins are ambiguous

Table 2. Number of cheek teeth of each wear stage from the total of 4015 dentaries digitized.


Wear Stage  DP/4     P/4      M/1      M/2      M/3     Total
    0         0       49        3        4       63       119
    1         0       39        4       10       39        92
    2         7      147       69      257      184       664
    3        86      697      638      893      716      3030
    4        95      556     1936     1765      952      5304
    5        27       73      372      199       50       721
    6         0        7       14       49       53       123
    7         0       28       99       78       44       249
    8         2       41      261      203       57       564
    9         0       21      119       98       57       295
  Total     217     1658     3515     3556     2215    11,161

Table 3. List and description of subjective size values for accessory cusps.


Cusp Size   Cusp Description
    0       Not present
    1       Barely visible
    2       Small but very distinct and clearly developed
    3       Large and well developed
    4       Unusually large or forming a ridge across valley

Table 4. List of measurements calculated for each jaw and contained in Jaw Measurements Panel of database.

    Basis (points
#   on Figure 5)           Description of Measurements
Format ###.##
0                          Film roll and frame number
Format ##.##
1   Depth tooth row to 1   Depth of anterior jaw from M/1-2 base line
2   Depth tooth row to 2   Depth of medial jaw from M/1-2 base line
3   Depth tooth row to 3   Depth of posterior jaw from M/1-2 base line
4   Depth tooth row to 3   Depth of posterior jaw from M/3 base
5   Length 1 to 2          Distance between first two jaw measurements
6   Length 2 to 3          Distance between second two jaw measurements
Format ##
7   Angle 1-2 to axis      Angle between first two jaw measurements
8   Angle 2-3 to axis      Angle between second two jaw measurements
9                          Right (1) or left (-1) jaw
Format ## (calculated from measurements above)
10  7 - 8                  Jaw curvature

Table 5. List of measurements calculated for each lower cheek tooth and contained in the respective tooth measurements panels of database.

    View of   Basis (points on
#   Tooth     Figures 3 and 4)      Description of Measurements
Format ###.##
0                                   Film roll and frame number
Format ##.##
1   Occlusal  Tooth circum.         Square root of Area
2   Occlusal  Tooth circum.         Periphery
3   Occlusal  Length 1 to 5         Tooth length
4   Occlusal  Width 2 to 9          Tooth width (anterior)
5   Occlusal  Width 3 to 8          Tooth width (medial)
6   Occlusal  Width 4 to 7          Tooth width (posterior)
7   Occlusal  Width 5 to 3          Valley mouths to end of tooth
8   Occlusal  Length 5 to 6         Posterior valley mouth to end of tooth
9   Occlusal  Length 5 to 10        Anterior lingual valley to end of tooth
10  Occlusal  Length 5 to 14        Labial valley to end of tooth
11  Occlusal  Length 5 to 16        Posterior lingual valley to end of tooth
12  Occlusal  Length 10 to 11       Length of anterior lingual valley
13  Occlusal  Length 11 to 12       Width of anterior lingual valley
14  Lingual   Height 1 to base      Height of anterior cusp
15  Lingual   Height 3 to base      Height of anterior valley
16  Lingual   Height 4 to base      Height of posterior cusp
17  Lingual   Height 5 to base      Height of posterior valley
18  Lingual   Width 2 to 3          Width of lingual accessory cusp
Format ##
19  Occlusal  Angle 10-11 to axis   Anterior lingual valley posterior wall angle
Format ###
20  Occlusal  Angle 10-11 to 11-12  Anterior lingual valley posterior angle
21  Occlusal  Angle 11-12 to 12-13  Anterior lingual valley anterior angle
Format ##
22  Occlusal  Subj. measurement 17  Wear stage (0-9)
23  Occlusal  Subj. measurement 18  Labial accessory cusp (0-4)
24  Occlusal  Subj. measurement 19  Anterior medial accessory cusp (0-4)
25  Occlusal  Subj. measurement 20  Posterior medial accessory cusp (0-4)
26  Lingual   Subj. measurement 10  Lingual accessory cusp (0-4)
Format ##.## (calculated from measurements above)
27  Calc.     Largest of 4, 5, & 6  Maximum tooth width
28  Calc.     1 / 2                 Area / periphery
29  Calc.     4 / 3                 Anterior width / length
30  Calc.     6 / 3                 Posterior width / length
31  Calc.     27 / 3                Maximum width / length
32  Calc.     4 / 6                 Anterior width / posterior width
33  Calc      9 / 3                 Lingual valley / length
34  Calc.     10 / 3                Labial valley / length
35  Calc.     7 / 3                 Valley mouths / length
36  Calc.     8 / 3                 Post. valley mouth / length
37  Calc.     13 * 20               Valley width * angle
38  Calc.     14 / 15               Anterior cusp / anterior valley
39  Calc.     16 / 17               Posterior cusp / posterior valley

Table 6. Correlation matrix for 26 variables on 641 M/2's from the middle and upper Orella of northwestern Nebraska.

     Key to Abbreviations
     Acc. = Accessory             Ling.= Lingual
     Ant. = Anterior              Med. = Medial
     Heig.= Height                Post.= Posterior
     Lab. = Labial                Val. = Valley
     Leng.= Length                Var. = Variable


             Area  Peri-
Variable       1   phery
 1 Area      1.00    2   Leng. Ant.
 2 Periphery  .73  1.00    3   Width Med.
 3 Length     .60   .76  1.00    4   Width Post. Med.
 4 A-Width    .46   .61   .47  1.00    5   Width Val.  Post. Ant.
 5 M-Width    .53   .65   .55   .83  1.00    6   Mouth Val.  Ling.
 6 P-Width    .59   .79   .57   .75   .80  1.00    7   Mouth Val.  Lab.  Post.
 7 M-Valley   .56   .68   .80   .35   .46   .56  1.00    8   Wall  Val.  Ling. Ant.
 8 P-Valley   .21   .23   .36   .18   .14   .21   .51  1.00    9   Wall  Val.  Ling. Ant.
 9 A-Lin-Val  .49   .58   .77   .37   .42   .44   .77   .52  1.00   10   Wall  Val.  Ling.
10 Lab-Val    .45   .59   .71   .33   .36   .47   .76   .40   .75  1.00   11   Leng. Val.
11 P-Lin-Val  .27   .42   .57   .18   .17   .26   .61   .35   .53   .69  1.00   12   Width
12 ALV-Len   -.04   .01  -.13   .02  -.17  -.01  -.05   .07   .06   .06   .04  1.00   13 
13 ALV-Wid    .15   .19   .22   .09   .16   .16   .17  -.00   .02   .11   .17  -.08  1.00
14 A-C-Heig   .26   .37   .36   .23   .20   .27   .35   .15   .28   .40   .41   .06   .12
15 A-V-Heig   .15   .21   .16   .15   .17   .22   .21   .13   .21   .23   .14   .00   .06
16 P-C-Heig   .30   .38   .43   .19   .23   .28   .40   .04   .33   .43   .42   .03   .15
17 P-V-Heig   .14   .19   .12   .16   .15   .23   .18   .15   .17   .24   .16  -.03   .00
18 Lin-Cusp   .10   .13   .11   .05   .10   .08   .11  -.01   .14   .16   .12   .08   .04
19 ALV-W     .02  -.04   .03   .04  -.01  -.03   .07   .09   .34   .05  -.03   .31   .07
20 ALV-P     .07   .15   .18   .05   .09   .08   .08   .03  -.04   .09   .19  -.24   .08
21 ALV-A    -.13  -.15  -.20  -.07  -.16  -.11  -.08  -.03  -.09  -.06  -.08   .16  -.49
22 Wear      -.01  -.01  -.16   .10   .10   .10  -.13  -.03  -.13  -.22  -.39  -.00   .00
23 Lab-Cusp   .15   .20   .15   .16   .19   .16   .13   .06   .09   .13   .13   .09   .08
24 A-M-Cusp   .15   .10   .15   .07   .17   .14   .06   .02   .07  -.01  -.03  -.10   .23
25 P-M-Cusp   .06   .08   .04   .06   .06   .11   .04   .02   .05   .05   .03   .03  -.02
26 Lin-Cusp   .05   .07   .07   .03   .06   .05   .06  -.00   .11   .12   .09   .06   .01



             Ant.
             Cusp  Ant.
             Heig. Val.  Post.
Variable      14   Heig. Cusp  Post. Ling.
14 A-C-Heig  1.00   15   Heig. Val.  Acc.  Ant.  Ant.
15 A-V-Heig   .60  1.00   16   Heig. Cusp  Ling. Ling. Ant.
16 P-C-Heig   .83   .59  1.00   17   Width Val.  Val.  Ling.
17 P-V-Heig   .47   .70   .57  1.00   18   Wall  Post. Val.
18 Lin-Cusp   .08   .11   .12   .05  1.00   19   Angle Ant.        Lab.  Ant.
19 ALV-W     .00   .06   .03   .03   .04  1.00   20   Angle Wear  Acc.  Med.  Post.
20 ALV-P     .15   .03   .16   .03  -.03  -.47  1.00   21   Stage Cusp  Acc.  Med.
21 ALV-A    -.13  -.03  -.16  -.01   .02   .09  -.56  1.00   22   Size  Cusp  Acc.  Ling.
22 Wear      -.38  -.00  -.36  -.07   .02   .02  -.08  -.00  1.00   23   Size  Cusp  Acc.
23 Lab-Cusp   .19   .06   .18   .02   .13  -.06   .07  -.02  -.11  1.00   24   Size  Cusp
24 A-M-Cusp   .03   .01   .05   .00   .01  -.06   .12  -.54   .05   .02  1.00   25   Size
25 P-M-Cusp   .09  -.01   .06  -.02   .02  -.01   .02  -.11  -.06   .01   .21  1.00   26 
26 Lin-Cusp   .07   .12   .09   .05   .82   .05  -.02   .02   .04   .14  -.02   .02  1.00

Table 7. Rotated factor loadings from principle components analysis on 641 M/2's from the middle and upper Orella.

 Factor        1     2     3     4     5     6     7     8
              Tooth Tooth Tooth ALV   ALV   Ling. Lab.  Med.
 Variable     Leng. Width Heig. Width Leng. Cusp  Cusp  Cusp

 1 Area       0.37  0.64  0.07  0.09 -0.01  0.03  0.06  0.07
 2 Periphery  0.43  0.76  0.12  0.10 -0.06  0.05  0.14  0.02
 3 Length     0.72  0.50  0.08  0.17 -0.09  0.03  0.13  0.04
 4 A-Width    0.10  0.86  0.09 -0.00  0.03 -0.02 -0.00  0.02
 5 M-Width    0.14  0.89  0.08  0.07 -0.08  0.03 -0.05  0.06
 6 P-Width    0.23  0.87  0.14  0.05 -0.03  0.01 -0.01  0.06
 7 M-Valley   0.81  0.39  0.12  0.08 -0.02  0.03  0.07 -0.02
 8 P-Valley   0.68  0.03  0.05 -0.05  0.05 -0.05 -0.20  0.03
 9 A-Lin-Val  0.83  0.32  0.11 -0.02  0.20  0.06 -0.03  0.08
10 Lab-Val    0.78  0.29  0.17  0.02 -0.00  0.09  0.21 -0.03
11 P-Lin-Val  0.72  0.05  0.13  0.12 -0.10  0.06  0.40 -0.07
12 ALV-Len   -0.02 -0.04 -0.02 -0.07  0.63  0.06  0.26  0.03
13 ALV-Wid    0.03  0.11  0.02  0.91  0.12  0.01  0.04 -0.08
14 A-C-Heig   0.22  0.14  0.73  0.09 -0.01  0.00  0.44  0.08
15 A-V-Heig   0.07  0.11  0.89  0.02  0.03  0.09 -0.10 -0.04
16 P-C-Heig   0.24  0.15  0.76  0.13 -0.02  0.04  0.41  0.06
17 P-V-Heig   0.08  0.09  0.86 -0.05 -0.03  0.00 -0.11 -0.04
18 Lin-Cusp   0.07  0.05  0.05  0.01  0.04  0.94  0.04  0.01
19 ALV-W     0.16 -0.04  0.05  0.06  0.83  0.00 -0.15  0.01
20 ALV-P     0.08  0.01  0.05  0.34 -0.74 -0.01  0.14  0.11
21 ALV-A    -0.07 -0.03 -0.05 -0.73  0.27  0.02  0.07 -0.42
22 Wear      -0.25  0.24 -0.13  0.03  0.05  0.12 -0.70 -0.07
23 Lab-Cusp  -0.08  0.29 -0.02  0.07  0.04  0.18  0.54 -0.05
24 A-M-Cusp   0.01  0.10  0.01  0.36 -0.07 -0.00 -0.17  0.70
25 P-M-Cusp   0.01  0.06 -0.02 -0.12  0.03  0.01  0.15  0.79
26 Lin-Cusp   0.04  0.01  0.06 -0.01  0.03  0.95  0.02  0.00
37 ALV-W*P   0.07  0.10  0.03  0.92 -0.26  0.00  0.10 -0.01

Eigenvalue    4.09  4.09  2.79  2.59  1.86  1.86  1.63  1.34

Table 8. Means and coefficients of variation for eight variables on lower jaws from three populations.

  Jaw         Orella C      Orella A      Pipestone    Total
Variable      mean   CV     mean   CV     mean   CV     mean

1 A-Depth    10.24   10     9.92    8     8.86    8    10.03
2 M-Depth     9.63    9     9.37    7     8.40    7     9.45
3 P-Depth-1   7.96    9     7.81    9     7.62    8     7.89
4 P-Depth-2   8.24    8     8.07    8     7.65    7     8.14
5 A-Dist      3.57   12     3.29   12     3.14   11     3.47
6 P-Dist      6.70   16     6.24   17     5.28   14     6.45
7 A-Angle    39.82   16    39.84   14    38.45   12    39.68
8 P-Angle    44.31   10    44.48    8    38.27   11    43.71

Counts         508           154            78           740

Table 9. Means and coefficients of variation for 26 variables on P/4's from three populations.

   P/4        Orella C      Orella A      Pipestone    Total
 Variable     mean   CV     mean   CV     mean   CV     mean

 1 Area       3.03    7     2.75    7     2.89    9     2.95
 2 Periphery 11.46    6    10.36    7    10.90    9    11.18
 3 Length     3.67    6     3.31    7     3.51    8     3.58
 4 A-Width    2.46    9     2.27    9     2.26   16     2.40
 5 M-Width    2.56    9     2.39   10     2.42   16     2.51
 6 P-Width    3.09    9     2.80    9     2.88   14     3.01
 7 M-Valley   1.87    8     1.66   10     1.83   10     1.82
 8 P-Valley   0.47   30     0.40   34     0.36   37     0.44
 9 A-Lin-Val  1.49   11     1.26   13     1.50   08     1.44
10 Lab-Val    1.48   10     1.32   12     1.44   11     1.44
11 P-Lin-Val  0.91   16     0.78   21     0.85   19     0.88
12 ALV-Len    0.56   29     0.47   27     0.53   19     0.54
13 ALV-Wid    0.38   32     0.40   24     0.43   25     0.39
14 A-C-Heig   2.10   17     1.93   16     1.81   22     2.04
15 A-V-Heig   1.28   18     1.22   17     1.04   21     1.24
16 P-C-Heig   1.72   15     1.57   15     1.61   18     1.68
17 P-V-Heig   1.22   20     1.16   17     0.98   22     1.19
18 Lin-Cusp   0.08  195     0.04  284     0.09  185     0.07
19 ALV-W    48.40   21    43.20   27    51.52   19    47.56
20 ALV-P    75.71   18    82.42   16    74.36   17    77.03
21 ALV-A   111.39   17   102.10   18   112.78   16   109.53
22 Wear       3.44   19     3.33   19     3.38   20     3.41
23 Lab-Cusp   0.01  943     0.00    0     0.02  707     0.01
24 A-M-Cusp   0.06  426     0.03  548     0.28  229     0.08
25 P-M-Cusp   0.08  501     0.05  781     0.02  707     0.07
26 Lin-Cusp   0.22  227     0.10  332     0.16  292     0.19

Counts         404           123            50           577

Table 10. Means and coefficients of variation for 26 variables on M/1's from three populations.

   M/1        Orella C      Orella A      Pipestone    Total
 Variable     mean   CV     mean   CV     mean   CV     mean

 1 Area       3.30    5     2.97    6     3.08    7     3.20
 2 Periphery 12.35    5    11.10    6    11.45    7    11.94
 3 Length     3.60    5     3.29    6     3.35    9     3.49
 4 A-Width    3.24    7     2.90    8     3.03    8     3.14
 5 M-Width    3.21    7     2.84    8     3.04    8     3.11
 6 P-Width    3.45    6     3.05    8     3.22    8     3.33
 7 M-Valley   1.87    7     1.69    8     1.74   10     1.81
 8 P-Valley   0.43   28     0.43   24     0.42   29     0.43
 9 A-Lin-Val  1.68    8     1.47    9     1.61   10     1.62
10 Lab-Val    1.56    8     1.41    8     1.50   11     1.52
11 P-Lin-Val  1.01   15     0.90   14     0.97   15     0.98
12 ALV-Len    0.64   29     0.52   28     0.52   19     0.59
13 ALV-Wid    0.44   25     0.44   22     0.44   27     0.44
14 A-C-Heig   2.04   13     1.82   13     1.68   19     1.94
15 A-V-Heig   1.20   14     1.10   13     1.10   17     1.16
16 P-C-Heig   1.83   13     1.59   15     1.57   16     1.74
17 P-V-Heig   1.15   17     1.10   14     1.05   20     1.13
18 Lin-Cusp   0.11  153     0.07  208     0.10  168     0.10
19 ALV-W    44.21   18    40.95   21    47.05   18    43.86
20 ALV-P    84.67   14    87.08   14    87.43   12    85.59
21 ALV-A    91.61   21    90.01   20    95.70   19    91.81
22 Wear       3.77   12     3.78   12     3.78   12     3.78
23 Lab-Cusp   0.09  432     0.00 1480     0.01 1149     0.06
24 A-M-Cusp   0.68  144     0.49  161     0.14  334     0.56
25 P-M-Cusp   0.00 1432     0.01 1044     0.04  602     0.01
26 Lin-Cusp   0.36  189     0.25  252     0.35  201     0.33

Counts         617           219           132           968

Table 11. Means and coefficients of variation for 26 variables on M/2's from three populations.

   M/2        Orella C      Orella A      Pipestone    Total
 Variable     mean   CV     mean   CV     mean   CV     mean

 1 Area       3.42    7     3.06    7     3.16    6     3.30
 2 Periphery 12.82    6    11.46    7    11.79    6    12.36
 3 Length     3.62    6     3.26    6     3.37    7     3.50
 4 A-Width    3.54    7     3.18    8     3.30    8     3.42
 5 M-Width    3.48    7     3.10    8     3.23    8     3.36
 6 P-Width    3.61    7     3.19    9     3.25    9     3.46
 7 M-Valley   1.85    8     1.65    9     1.64    9     1.77
 8 P-Valley   0.47   26     0.46   23     0.40   29     0.46
 9 A-Lin-Val  1.70    9     1.49    9     1.60   10     1.64
10 Lab-Val    1.58    9     1.41    9     1.51   10     1.53
11 P-Lin-Val  1.06   14     0.96   13     1.04   17     1.03
12 ALV-Len    0.65   31     0.54   30     0.52   18     0.60
13 ALV-Wid    0.45   24     0.43   20     0.43   27     0.44
14 A-C-Heig   2.13   13     1.87   15     1.66   16     2.00
15 A-V-Heig   1.18   15     1.09   14     1.06   14     1.14
16 P-C-Heig   1.80   13     1.55   15     1.54   14     1.70
17 P-V-Heig   1.13   16     1.06   16     1.01   16     1.10
18 Lin-Cusp   0.06  207     0.04  243     0.05  259     0.05
19 ALV-W    43.33   19    40.72   21    40.41   21    42.32
20 ALV-P    84.70   14    88.17   14    92.56   14    86.56
21 ALV-A    85.84   23    87.77   20    89.11   25    86.74
22 Wear       3.60   17     3.57   18     3.69   13     3.61
23 Lab-Cusp   0.32  223     0.03  611     0.00    0     0.21
24 A-M-Cusp   0.93  120     0.52  161     0.45  203     0.77
25 P-M-Cusp   0.08  481     0.01 1162     0.05  588     0.06
26 Lin-Cusp   0.16  273     0.08  400     0.14  325     0.14

Counts         640           244           133          1017

Table 12. Means and coefficients of variation for 26 variables on M/3's from three populations.

   M/3        Orella C      Orella A      Pipestone    Total
 Variable     mean   CV     mean   CV     mean   CV     mean

 1 Area       3.40    4     3.08    6     2.95    7     3.25
 2 Periphery 12.90    4    11.66    6    11.07    8    12.33
 3 Length     3.83    5     3.47    7     3.32    9     3.67
 4 A-Width    3.41   10     3.09   10     3.06    8     3.28
 5 M-Width    3.23    9     2.89   10     2.84    9     3.09
 6 P-Width    3.26    9     2.90   12     2.73   10     3.09
 7 M-Valley   2.00    8     1.81   10     1.55   14     1.88
 8 P-Valley   0.74   25     0.67   23     0.45   42     0.67
 9 A-Lin-Val  1.89   10     1.67   11     1.58   13     1.79
10 Lab-Val    1.72   10     1.55   11     1.44   15     1.64
11 P-Lin-Val  1.26   14     1.15   13     1.06   19     1.20
12 ALV-Len    0.51   32     0.47   27     0.45   18     0.49
13 ALV-Wid    0.43   25     0.41   24     0.40   26     0.42
14 A-C-Heig   2.26   12     1.96   15     1.63   18     2.09
15 A-V-Heig   1.20   14     1.12   14     1.00   16     1.15
16 P-C-Heig   1.69   14     1.49   16     1.41   14     1.60
17 P-V-Heig   1.27   14     1.20   14     0.97   18     1.20
18 Lin-Cusp   0.07  190     0.04  237     0.08  199     0.07
19 ALV-W    41.72   24    41.08   24    41.90   27    41.62
20 ALV-P    85.91   16    88.83   15    91.80   14    87.54
21 ALV-A    91.91   22    91.21   21    89.94   23    91.42
22 Wear       3.45   21     3.58   16     3.51   16     3.48
23 Lab-Cusp   0.25  238     0.08  410     0.00    0     0.17
24 A-M-Cusp   0.32  214     0.24  236     0.30  242     0.30
25 P-M-Cusp   0.08  475     0.05  624     0.05  592     0.07
26 Lin-Cusp   0.19  264     0.08  442     0.30  223     0.19

Counts         346           110            99           555

Table 13. Success rates of classifying fossils by discriminant analysis with number of variables used in parentheses.


Groups          Jaw       P/4       M/1       M/2       M/3

Orella C &      66.0      83.5      88.8      87.0      89.7
Orella   A      (3)       (5)       (9)       (7)       (5)

Orella C &      91.0      82.2      89.5      91.7      96.9
Pipestone       (6)       (6)       (14)      (11)      (12)

Orella A &      84.1      86.7      82.1      90.2      91.4
Pipestone       (2)       (7)       (9)       (10)      (9)

All three       64.7      72.8      82.2      82.6      87.7
groups          (6)       (9)       (15)      (13)      (14)

Table 14. Coefficients for canonical variables and group means used in four discriminant analyses on jaws.


   Jaw       Orella C   Orella C   Orella A    All 3 groups
 Variable    Orella A   Pipestone  Pipestone   1         2

 2 M-Depth               -4.43      0.90     -4.65      5.40
 3 P-Depth-1    0.44      4.18                4.54     -5.13
 4 P-Depth-2              0.90                0.75     -0.15
 5 A-Dist       1.82      0.89                0.84      1.58
 6 P-Dist       0.49      1.45                1.52     -0.93
 8 P-Angle                0.59      0.17      0.62     -0.71

Orella C        0.19      0.33                0.35      0.15
Orella A       -0.62                0.66     -0.07     -0.60
Pipestone                -2.15     -1.30     -2.15      0.20

Table 15. Coefficients for canonical variables and group means used in four discriminant analyses on P/4's.


   P/4       Orella C   Orella C   Orella A    All 3 groups
 Variable    Orella A   Pipestone  Pipestone   1         2

 1 Area                            -1.58
 2 Periphery    1.28                          0.95      0.41
 4 A-Width                1.76
 6 P-Width     -1.04
 8 P-Valley               2.42      3.08     -0.06      3.87
 9 A-Lin-Val    3.80               -4.54      4.26     -4.38
10 Lab-Val     -1.79                         -1.85      1.70
13 ALV-Wid                                   -0.29     -3.61
14 A-C-Heig               1.42
15 A-V-Heig                         2.89     -0.61      2.10
16 P-C-Heig              -2.42
17 P-V-Heig               2.60
20 ALV-P                                    -0.00     -0.03
21 ALV-A       0.01               -0.02      0.01     -0.03
23 Lab-Cusp                        -2.91
24 A-M-Cusp              -1.30     -1.16      0.00     -1.54

Orella C        0.43      0.18      0.70      0.42      0.17
Orella A       -1.41                         -1.42      0.10
Pipestone                -1.46     -1.73      0.14     -1.59

Table 16. Coefficients for canonical variables and group means used in four discriminant analyses on M/1's.


   M/1       Orella C   Orella C   Orella A    All 3 groups
 Variable    Orella A   Pipestone  Pipestone   1         2

 2 Periphery    0.59      0.95                1.04      0.34
 3 Length       1.70      1.51                0.69      1.84
 5 M-Width               -1.14     -3.09      0.12     -2.47
 6 P-Width      1.29
 7 M-Valley               2.56                1.58      2.03
 8 P-Valley    -3.32     -1.75      1.77     -3.13      1.33
 9 A-Lin-Val    2.73                          2.15     -3.49
10 Lab-Val     -1.68     -4.32               -2.92     -3.70
11 P-Lin-Val                       -3.26
12 ALV-Len      1.15      1.61      2.74      1.45      0.87
13 ALV-Wid     -1.61     -2.93               -2.22     -2.04
14 A-C-Heig               1.72      3.39      0.48      2.94
16 P-C-Heig     0.48               -1.79      0.45     -1.82
19 ALV-W                -0.05     -0.06     -0.01     -0.07
20 ALV-P                -0.04               -0.01     -0.06
21 ALV-A                -0.02               -0.00     -0.03
22 Wear                   0.28
24 A-M-Cusp                         0.52
25 P-M-Cusp              -1.32     -1.25     -0.46     -1.50

Orella C        0.62      0.41                0.76      0.05
Orella A       -1.74                0.73     -1.47      0.69
Pipestone                -1.92     -1.21     -1.12     -1.35

Table 17. Coefficients for canonical variables and group means used in four discriminant analyses on M/2's.


   M/2       Orella C   Orella C   Orella A    All 3 groups
 Variable    Orella A   Pipestone  Pipestone   1         2

 1 Area                            -3.84
 2 Periphery    0.76                          0.45     -0.74
 3 Length       2.64      1.55     -1.86      1.89     -0.83
 6 P-Width                0.64
 7 M-Valley               5.46      8.61      3.44      7.48
 8 P-Valley    -2.40                2.70     -1.77      2.61
 9 A-Lin-Val             -2.64     -2.19     -0.08     -5.58
10 Lab-Val               -4.03     -2.39     -2.64     -1.86
11 P-Lin-Val                       -2.46     -1.03     -1.39
12 ALV-Len      1.30      1.30                1.51      0.11
13 ALV-Wid     -2.33     -2.85               -2.53     -1.52
14 A-C-Heig               2.95      4.15      1.91      3.29
16 P-C-Heig              -1.51     -2.60     -0.76     -2.30
20 ALV-P      -0.02     -0.04               -0.03     -0.02
21 ALV-A      -0.01     -0.02               -0.01     -0.02
23 Lab-Cusp                         1.29

Orella C        0.59      0.47                0.79     -0.07
Orella A       -1.56                0.85     -1.16      0.94
Pipestone                -2.26     -1.56     -1.67     -1.36

Table 18. Coefficients for canonical variables and group means used in four discriminant analyses on M/3's.


   M/3       Orella C   Orella C   Orella A    All 3 groups
 Variable    Orella A   Pipestone  Pipestone   1         2

 2 Periphery    1.54      0.82                0.90      0.95
 3 Length                          -2.62      0.19      2.85
 5 M-Width                         -0.96
 7 M-Valley               3.96      7.81      3.99     -7.92
 9 A-Lin-Val                                 -1.37      3.46
10 Lab-Val               -2.08     -3.15     -2.23      0.40
11 P-Lin-Val             -1.30
12 ALV-Len      1.20
13 ALV-Wid               -1.20               -2.04      0.62
14 A-C-Heig     1.20      2.39      3.67      2.32     -1.84
15 A-V-Heig    -1.73     -1.28     -2.11     -1.26     -0.43
16 P-C-Heig              -1.64     -3.68     -1.92      3.25
17 P-V-Heig               2.05      3.54      1.92     -2.73
20 ALV-P      -0.01     -0.01               -0.02      0.01
21 ALV-A                                    -0.01      0.02
23 Lab-Cusp               0.26                0.30      0.10
24 A-M-Cusp              -0.26     -0.48     -0.32      0.06

Orella C        0.53      0.88                1.02      0.21
Orella A       -1.68                1.30     -0.65     -1.16
Pipestone                -3.06     -1.45     -2.85      0.55

Timothy H. Heaton: E-mail, Home page, Phone (605) 677-6122, FAX (605) 677-6121