by Timothy H. Heaton, NSS 15753
The HP-15C is a by 5" by 3" by ¼" calculator that can easily fit in a shirt pocket, but which has extensive capabilities and is widely used by scientists and students. It costs about $100 which includes a large owner's handbook describing in detail how to use the calculator.
|The program here described takes raw survey data
and converts it to accumulated 3D rectangular coordinates, which allows
survey points to be easily plotted on graph paper. The program allows for
branches in the survey and will average closure error in single loops. It
will also back up to the previous survey point in case an error has been
Probably the biggest advantage of this system is that the calculator can be taken through the cave while surveying, and the survey points can be quickly plotted before the passage detail is drawn, thus eliminating the problem of trying to match in-cave drawings with later-plotted survey points. Also, mistakes can be more immediately noticed using this system.
The author mapping in
Red Baron Cave, Utah.
Since this program and the storage registers it uses take the full memory capacity of the calculator, the memory must be precisely allocated. Type 39 into the display, then type f DIM (i). Now type g P/R to put the calculator in program mode, and type f PRGM to erase any programs already in the memory. Now the program may be entered into the program memory by typing all the keys listed in Table 1. After the program is entered, type g P/R again to put the calculator back in run mode.
The program allows for the coordinates to be converted to any scale. Type the number you want the distances multiplied by (or type 1 if you want the output in the same units as the input) then type STO 0 to store this number in the 0 register.
The program also corrects for true north vs. magnetic north. If magnetic north is clockwise (right) of true north, type the difference in degrees into the display. If magnetic north is counterclockwise (left) of true north, type the difference into the display then type CHS to make the number negative. Now type STO 1 to store this number in the 1 register. If no correction is desired, or if the correction is being made by the compass, make sure that 0 is stored in the 1 register. (It is probably best to let the calculator correct for true north rather than the compass. This way the raw survey data is relative to magnetic north, and a possible later discovery that the correction factor was inaccurate can be more easily dealt with.)
Now type GSB . 3 to begin a routine that sets the coordinates of the main buffer to zero; or, if you want the cave map to start at a point other than zero, type the desired vertical coordinate then type ENTER, type the desired east-west coordinate then type ENTER, type the desired north-south coordinate then type ENTER, type the station number you are starting at, then type GSB . 1 to begin a routine that stores these coordinates in the main buffer. Also type f USER to avoid having to constantly use the f key when using the A, B, C, D, and E routine keys.
Now the calculator is ready to convert raw survey data to coordinates that can be plotted on graph paper. It is recommended that the raw survey data (from, to, azimuth, dip, and distance) as well as the coordinates obtained from the calculator (north-south coordinate, east-west coordinate, and vertical coordinate) all be recorded in the notebook along with other information about passage width and height, etc.
The north-south and east-west coordinates will be used for the plan view of the cave. The first survey point will be at coordinates (0,0) or whatever coordinates were stored in the main buffer. Positive numbers for the north-south and east-west coordinates indicate that the point is north or east of the coordinates (0,0) respectively, whereas negative numbers indicate points south and west of (0,0) respectively. The vertical coordinate indicates elevation above (positive) or below (negative) the beginning station or initially entered vertical coordinate.
Plot the first survey station (usually 0,0) on the graph paper then use the calculator to determine the coordinates of the next survey station. To do this, type the station number to which you are surveying then type ENTER, type the compass azimuth (in degrees) then type ENTER, type the dip (in degrees, followed by CHS if the slope is downward) then type ENTER, type the distance, then type A to begin the routine. After flashing running for 6 seconds, the station number which the coordinates define will appear in the display. Type Rv to see the north-south coordinate, type Rv again to see the east-west coordinate, and type Rv again to see the vertical coordinate. Additional typing of Rv will allow these four numbers to be reviewed.
In addition to being displayed, the current station number and its coordinates are stored in the main buffer (see Table 2). When the coordinates of the next station are calculated by repeating the steps in the previous paragraph, the additional distances are added to the previous coordinates to always give the coordinates in relation to point (0,0), not in relation to the previous station. A cave survey with no branches or loops can be plotted by simply repeating the steps in the previous paragraph with each set of survey data until the end of the cave is reached.
The current station number and its coordinates can be recalled to the display from the main buffer at any time by typing GSB . 2. Also, if a wrong piece of data is entered or if the wrong routine key is pressed, there is a mistake buffer which contains the coordinates of the previous station, and the calculator will "back up" to the previous station when GSB 3 is typed. (Additional typing of GSB 3 will have no effect.)
If the cave passageway splits, and you survey to the end of one branch then return to the junction and survey down the other, the coordinates of the junction point should be stored in the calculator. The program is designed to store up to five sets of coordinates in buffers 1 through 5, and can store a sixth set in buffer 0 if none of the loop routines are being used. Just type the buffer number into the display then type GSB 1 to store the contents of the main buffer in the indicated storage buffer. The station number and coordinates stored will also be recalled to the display.
When you are finished mapping one branch and want to return to the junction, type the storage buffer number then GSB 2 to replace the main buffer with the coordinates stored in the indicated buffer. Then begin mapping down the other branch. The storage buffers keeps the stored data until it is replaced, so if you forget which buffer contains the coordinates of the junction, you can keep recalling different storage buffers until the station number you are looking for appears in the display.
A simpler way to map a branch with only one survey point on it is to use the mistake buffer. After reaching the junction, just enter the data on the single station branch, record its coordinates, then type GSB 3 to return to the junction, and continue mapping down the other branch.
One-part loops are where you map all the way around the loop in one direction, clockwise or counterclockwise. This program is designed to average the loop closure error over all the stations in the loop. More correction is made between more distant stations, but all stations receive a minimum amount of correction regardless of their spacing.
When, in the process of mapping the cave, you reach the beginning of a loop that you want to average the closure error of, type GSB 0. This stores the coordinates of that point in buffer 0 and clears a register that accumulates the loop distance.
Now go around the loop entering the data as before, except type B instead of A for any set of data that is included in the loop. When the end of the loop is reached (when you have arrived back at the loop beginning point), type C. This divides the error in each coordinate by the loop distance and stores and displays the scaled error and a set of correction factors. The actual (unscaled) error is stored temporarily in register I.
Now type 0 GSB 2 to place the correct loop beginning coordinates in the main buffer, and type in all the loop data a second time typing E instead of A or B for each set of data that is included in the loop. All the coordinates produced by the calculator are now corrected, and when you reach the end of the loop, the coordinates given for the beginning point should be the same as given initially (the same as the ones stored in buffer 0).
Since any branches off the loop will need the loop corrected before they will be accurate, it is best to do them on the second time around (using routine A). If the calculator is used to calculate the survey-point coordinates for plotting as they are measured in the cave, however, it may be best to draw in the loop and its branches and correct the loop later after the loop is completed.
A two-part loop is where, from the beginning point of a loop, mapping is done clockwise and counterclockwise until the two branches meet. The program will average the closure error of such loops as it will with one-part loops, but a few more key steps are necessary.
Type GSB 0 when beginning the loop as before, and work around the loop in either direction using the B routine to the point where the two halves of the loop meet. Then type GSB . 0 to store the coordinates of that point. Type 0 GSB 2 to return to the beginning of the loop, and work around the loop the other way using routine B. When the point where the two halves of the loop meet is reached from the second route, type C to calculate the loop error and the correction factors. Type 0 GSB 2 to return to the beginning of the loop. Now correct the first half of the loop (the part you did before keying GSB . 0) using the D routine. Type 0 GSB 2 to return to the beginning of the loop. Now correct the second half of the loop (the part you did after keying GSB . 0) using the E routine (see Table 3). The point where the two halves of the loop meet should now have the same coordinates when calculated from either direction.
If the calculator displays error, there are several ways to track down the problem. The calculator lists an error number, and the type of error corresponding to each number is listed on the back of the calculator and described in the owner's handbook. If an inexecutable step is encountered while the calculator is doing a routine, it will stop at that program line. After clearing error from the display, type g P/R to see which program step is causing the problem. Check the key code in Table 1 to see if the step was properly entered. If not, erase that step by typing _ then retype the step properly. If the step is correct but contains a GTO or GSB command, find the corresponding LBL number in Table 1 and make sure the label step is correct. If all else fails, run through the entire program step by step by typing SST (or g BST to back up) in program mode, and compare the key code for each program line with Table 1 and erase and retype any incorrect steps.
It is recommended that users of this program become thoroughly familiar with all of its routines before taking it to a cave and expecting it to run smoothly. Also remember to carry extra batteries. Changing the batteries will not affect the calculator's memory, but dropping it can, so always carry a copy of the program in case it needs to be retyped. It is also recommended that the user either keep the calculator in a zipper pocket or design a shock cord to belay it in case it is dropped or falls out of a pocket.
Cave mapping using the HP-15C can be done with a three-person team with the recorder running the calculator in addition to sketching duties. A preferable system is a four-person team where two people run the compass(es) and tape, a third person runs the calculator and keeps the data book, and a fourth person plots the survey points on graph paper and sketches the cave features.