Oceanography Questions
Duxbury Chapter 12

  1. What are beaches generally composed of?
    Bedrock
    Boulders
    Clay
    Sand
    Vegetation

  2. What factor promotes the development of plunging breakers (that surfers love) rather than the less attractive spilling breakers?
    Coarse beach sediment
    Flatter beach slope
    Sea cliff
    Sea grass
    Steeper beach slope

  3. When waves reach an irregular coastline, how is their energy distributed?
    It is equally distributed between bays and headlands
    It is focused on bays and cuts them deeper
    It is focused on headlands and erodes them back
    It is reflected back to sea
    Steeper beach slope

  4. What is a typical order of features created as a headland is eroded by waves?
    Sea arches, then sea caves, then sea stacks
    Sea arches, then sea stacks, then sea caves
    Sea caves, then sea arches, then sea stacks
    Sea caves, then sea stacks, then sea arches
    Sea stacks, then sea caves, then sea arches

  5. As wave action works at a coastline, what kind of change tends to take place?
    Fjords develop as a result of coastal erosion.
    Offshore islands tend to emerge due to sedimentation.
    The coast becomes more irregular as bays are eroded deeper.
    The coast tends to become straighter as headlands are eroded back.

  6. What effect does falling sea level have on a coastline?
    It makes the coast more straight.
    It makes the coast more jagged.
    It makes the coast emergent.
    It makes the coast submergent.

  7. What are formed as tidal water moves in and out between barrier islands?
    Beaches
    Tidal deltas
    Tidal flats
    Wave-cut cliffs
    Wave-cut platforms

  8. What is the last remnant of an eroded headland called?
    Barrier island
    Jetty
    Sea stack
    Spit
    Tombolo

  9. What is a ridge of sand that connects an island to the mainland?
    Barrier island
    Jetty
    Sea stack
    Spit
    Tombolo

  10. What is a natural elongated ridge of sand that projects from the mainland into the mouth of an adjacent bay?
    Barrier island
    Jetty
    Sea stack
    Spit
    Tombolo

  11. What are created when bay-mouth bars and barrier islands isolate bays?
    Estuaries
    Fjords
    Lagoons
    Lakes
    Seas

  12. What factor determines the length of barrier islands?
    Abundance of vegetation stabilizing the barrier islands
    Rate of sedimentation from nearby rivers
    Size of waves hitting the coast
    Strength of longshore currents
    Tidal range

  13. What are drowned river valleys called?
    Estuaries
    Fjords
    Lagoons
    Lakes
    Seas

  14. What are drowned glacial valleys called?
    Estuaries
    Fjords
    Lagoons
    Lakes
    Seas

  15. What makes a coastal lagoon a swamp rather than a marsh?
    Deeper water
    Hypersaline conditions
    Presence of grasses
    Presence of trees
    Shallower water

  16. What is the history of global sea level over the past 40,000 years?
    It dropped to a low 18,000 years ago then rose again.
    It has been continually falling.
    It has been continually rising.
    It has stayed almost exactly the same.
    It rose to a peak 18,000 years ago then dropped again.

  17. What are the radiating channels of a delta called?
    Distributaries
    Levees
    Spits
    Tidal channels
    Tributaries

  18. Match these deltas with their dominant process type. (These are the only ones you are expected to know.)
    Delta name Delta type
    Fly, New Guinea
    Mississippi, USA
    Niger, Nigeria
    Nile, Egypt
    Fluvial dominated
    Tide dominated
    Wave dominated

  19. What is the order of coastal features found along eastern North America from north to south?
    Fjords, moraine islands, estuaries, large lagoons, organic reefs
    Fjords, moraine islands, large lagoons, estuaries, organic reefs
    Moraine islands, fjords, estuaries, large lagoons, organic reefs
    Moraine islands, fjords, large lagoons, estuaries, organic reefs
    Moraine islands, large lagoons, fjords, estuaries, organic reefs

  20. Match each state with the coastal features it is famous for.
    State Coastal features
    Florida
    Maine
    Massachusetts
    South Carolina
    Virginia
    Estuaries
    Fjords
    Large lagoons
    Moraine islands
    Organic reefs

  21. Which of the following states has the best developed secondary coasts?
    Alaska
    California
    Maine
    Maryland
    Washington

  22. Which type of estuary has the highest degree of stratification?
    Fjord-type estuary
    Hypersaline estuary
    Partially mixed estuary
    Salt wedge estuary
    Well-mixed estuary

  23. Which type of estuary results from a high output of fresh water from rivers?
    Fjord-type estuary
    Hypersaline estuary
    Partially mixed estuary
    Salt sedge estuary
    Well-mixed estuary

  24. What type of estuary is Laguna Maudre, Texas?
    Fjord-type estuary
    Hypersaline estuary
    Partially mixed estuary
    Salt sedge estuary
    Well-mixed estuary

  25. Which type of estuary is San Francisco Bay?
    Bar-built estuary
    Coastal plain estuary
    Fjord
    Tectonic estuary

  26. Which type of estuary is Chesapeake Bay?
    Bar-built estuary
    Coastal plain estuary
    Fjord
    Tectonic estuary

  27. What environmental concern is involved with reclamation (filling in) of wetlands?
    Destruction of breeding grounds
    Flooding from hurricanes and other storms
    Flooding from rising sea level
    Liquifaction during earthquakes
    All of the above

  28. What percentage of wetlands in the United States have been filled in and developed?
    10%
    20%
    40%
    60%
    80%

  29. Match each marginal sea or bay with its typical salinity conditions.
    Sea or bay Salinity conditions
    Bering Sea
    Caribbean Sea
    Chesapeake Bay
    Gulf of California
    Gulf of Mexico
    Laguna Maudre
    Mediterranean Sea
    Red Sea
    High surface salinity (above 38)
    Low surface salinity (below 30)
    Mainly normal marine salinity

  30. Which sea or bay is developing brines of over 250 salt on the sea floor?
    Bering Sea
    Caribbean Sea
    Chesapeake Bay
    Gulf of California
    Gulf of Mexico
    Mediterranean Sea
    Red Sea

  31. Which sea or bay sometimes develops anoxic conditions below the surface?
    Bering Sea
    Caribbean Sea
    Chesapeake Bay
    Gulf of California
    Gulf of Mexico
    Mediterranean Sea
    Red Sea

  32. Which sea or bay is dominated by deep upwellings?
    Bering Sea
    Caribbean Sea
    Chesapeake Bay
    Gulf of California
    Gulf of Mexico
    Mediterranean Sea
    Red Sea

  33. Which sea or bay has a well-developed clockwise loop current?
    Bering Sea
    Caribbean Sea
    Chesapeake Bay
    Gulf of California
    Gulf of Mexico
    Mediterranean Sea
    Red Sea

  34. Which sea or bay is well mixed with depth due to wind and tidal action?
    Bering Sea
    Caribbean Sea
    Chesapeake Bay
    Gulf of California
    Gulf of Mexico
    Mediterranean Sea
    Red Sea

  35. Which sea or bay has had its salinity and circulation pattern most effected by human modification?
    Bering Sea
    Caribbean Sea
    Chesapeake Bay
    Gulf of California
    Gulf of Mexico
    Mediterranean Sea
    Red Sea

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