Oceanography Questions
Duxbury Chapter 5

  1. How far apart are the hydrogen atoms in a water molecule, measured from the center of the oxygen atom?
    105°
    115°
    125°
    150°
    180°

  2. Why is water called a polar molecule?
    Electrons are shared between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
    It has a hydrogen atom at each pole.
    It has a positively and a negatively charged end.
    The covalent bonds holding it together are like long poles.
    The electrons are completely transferred from the hydrogen atoms to the oxygen atom.

  3. How many calories does it take to raise the temperature of one gram of water from the freezing point to the boiling point?
    0 calories
    1 calorie
    100 calories
    540 calories
    80 calories

  4. How many calories does it take to thaw one gram of ice?
    0 calories
    1 calorie
    100 calories
    540 calories
    80 calories

  5. How many calories does it take to vaporize one gram of water?
    0 calories
    1 calorie
    100 calories
    540 calories
    80 calories

  6. What is a typical temperature for deep ocean water?
    -2C
    -4C
    0C
    2C
    4C

  7. At what temperature does sea water freeze?
    -2°C
    -4°C
    0°C
    2°C
    4°C

  8. At what temperature does sea water have its maximum density?
    -2C
    -4C
    0C
    2C
    4C

  9. At what temperature does fresh water have its maximum density?
    -2C
    -4C
    0C
    2C
    4C

  10. What frequencies of electromagnetic radiation are most abundantly emitted by the sun?
    Infrared light
    Microwaves
    Radio waves
    Ultraviolet light
    Visible light

  11. What color of light penetrates most deeply through ocean water?
    Blue
    Green
    Red
    Violet
    Yellow

  12. What color of light is most scattered by water laden with suspended silt or microorganisms?
    Blue
    Green
    Red
    Violet
    Yellow

  13. What color of light is most quickly absorbed when it passes through water?
    Blue
    Green
    Red
    Violet
    Yellow

  14. How much sunlight that enters the ocean penetrates below a depth of 10 m?
    1%
    10%
    13%
    16%
    20%

  15. How much sunlight that enters the ocean penetrates below a depth of 100 m?
    1%
    10%
    13%
    16%
    20%

  16. What is the speed of sound in water?
    1000 m/sec
    1250 m/sec
    1450 m/sec
    300 m/sec
    600 m/sec

  17. What factors cause the speed of sound to increase in water?
    Decreasing pressure, decreasing salinity, and decreasing temperature.
    Increasing pressure, decreasing salinity, and decreasing temperature.
    Increasing pressure, decreasing salinity, and increasing temperature.
    Increasing pressure, increasing salinity, and decreasing temperature.
    Increasing pressure, increasing salinity, and increasing temperature.

  18. What wave phenomenon produces the SOFAR channel?
    Absorption
    Diffraction
    Interference
    Reflection
    Refraction

  19. How deep is the SOFAR channel typically found?
    1 m
    10 m
    100 m
    1000 m
    4000 m

Please report any errors in the exam or problems with the program to Dr. Heaton.
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