Crustal Deformation

Practice exam questions written by Timothy H. Heaton,
Professor of Earth Sciences, University of South Dakota

Click the circle by an answer with the mouse, then click on the Submit button to get a response. You will be told if your answer is correct or not and will be given some comments.

  1. What is a force that acts on rock to change its shape and/or volume?
    Deformation.
    Folding.
    Shear.
    Strain.
    Stress.

  2. Match each type of deformation with the behavior of the rock.
    Deformation type Rock behavior
    Faulting.
    Folding.
    Brittle.
    Ductile.

  3. What behaviors are typical of rocks that are deeply buried?
    Brittle and elastic.
    Brittle and plastic.
    Ductile and elastic.
    Ductile and plastic.

  4. What behaviors are typical of rocks at or near the earth's surface?
    Brittle and elastic.
    Brittle and plastic.
    Ductile and elastic.
    Ductile and plastic.

  5. Which type of deformation of the earth's crust is reversible?
    Elastic deformation.
    Plastic deformation.

  6. What term refers to line made by the intersection between a bedding plain and a horizontal plain?
    Dip.
    Joint.
    Plunge.
    Strike.

  7. Match each type of fold with its description.
    Fold type Description
    Anticline.
    Basin.
    Dome.
    Syncline.
    Circular with layers bent downward in the middle.
    Circular with layers bent upward in the middle.
    Elongate with layers bent downward in the middle.
    Elongate with layers bent upward in the middle.

  8. Which features are characteristic of anticlines?
    Dip symbols pointing away from axis and oldest rock in the middle.
    Dip symbols pointing away from axis and youngest rock in the middle.
    Dip symbols pointing toward axis and oldest rock in the middle.
    Dip symbols pointing toward axis and youngest rock in the middle.

  9. Which features are characteristic of synclines?
    Dip symbols pointing away from axis and oldest rock in the middle.
    Dip symbols pointing away from axis and youngest rock in the middle.
    Dip symbols pointing toward axis and oldest rock in the middle.
    Dip symbols pointing toward axis and youngest rock in the middle.

  10. Match each type of fold with its description.
    Fold type Description
    Asymmetrical fold.
    Non-plunging fold.
    Overturned fold.
    Plunging fold.
    Recumbent fold.
    Symmetrical fold.
    Axis of fold dipping at an angle.
    Axis of fold horizontal.
    Both limbs horizontal with one up-side down.
    Limbs with equal dip and both right-side up.
    Limbs with unequal dip and both right-side up.
    One limb up-side down but at an angle.

  11. What geologic structure is the San Rafael Reef in Utah an example of?
    Anticline.
    Basin.
    Dome.
    Monocline.
    Syncline.

  12. What geologic structure are the Black Hills of South Dakota an example of?
    Anticline.
    Basin.
    Dome.
    Monocline.
    Syncline.

  13. What geologic structure is a basin most similar to?
    Anticline.
    Syncline.
    Normal fault.
    Reverse fault.
    Strike-slip fault.

  14. What geologic structure is a dome most similar to?
    Anticline.
    Syncline.
    Normal fault.
    Reverse fault.
    Strike-slip fault.

  15. What name is given to a sharp ridge resulting from erosion of a dipping layer of resistant strata?
    Arąte.
    Divide.
    Esker.
    Hogback.
    Scarp.

  16. Which features tend to develop from tensional stress?
    Anticlines.
    Synclines.
    Normal faults.
    Reverse faults.
    Strike-slip faults.

  17. Which features tend to develop from shear stress?
    Anticlines.
    Synclines.
    Normal faults.
    Reverse faults.
    Strike-slip faults.

  18. Which features often form with no vertical displacement of rock?
    Anticlines.
    Synclines.
    Normal faults.
    Reverse faults.
    Strike-slip faults.

  19. What are the cause and effect of movement along a reverse fault?
    Lengthening of the crust due to compression.
    Lengthening of the crust due to tension.
    Shortening of the crust due to compression.
    Shortening of the crust due to tension.

  20. What name is given to the block of rock above a fault?
    Axis.
    Foot wall.
    Hanging wall.
    Joint.
    Scarp.

  21. In what type of fault does the hanging wall move down relative to the foot wall?
    Normal fault.
    Reverse fault.
    Strike-slip fault.
    Thrust fault.

  22. What name is given to crack in the rock along which no movement has taken place?
    Graben.
    Horst.
    Joint.
    Klippe.
    Scarp.

  23. What name is given to a block that has been down-dropped by normal faulting?
    Graben.
    Horst.
    Joint.
    Klippe.
    Scarp.

  24. What feature is left at the surface by displacement along a fault?
    Graben.
    Horst.
    Joint.
    Klippe.
    Scarp.

Please report any problems or errors to Dr. Heaton.