Levin, Chapter 9

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  1. What is the age of most of the rocks of the continental shields?
    Cenozoic
    Mesozoic
    Paleozoic
    Precambrian

  2. How were the Archean and Proterozoic eons originally distinguished?
    Degree of iron oxidation
    Degree of metamorphism
    Degree of weathering
    Fossil content
    Radiometric dating

  3. How are the Archean and Proterozoic eons distinguished today?
    Degree of iron oxidation
    Degree of metamorphism
    Degree of weathering
    Fossil content
    Radiometric dating

  4. What is the age of the basement schists and granites of the inner gorge of the Grand Canyon, and also the oldest basement rocks exposed in the core of the Black Hills?
    Early Archean
    Early Paleozoic
    Early Proterozoic
    Late Archean
    Late Proterozoic

  5. What was the origin of the midcontinent gravity anomaly that runs from Ontario to Kansas?
    A meteorite impact in the Paleozoic
    Collision of two microcontinents during the Archean
    Collision of two microcontinents during the Proterozoic
    Failed continental rifting during the Proterozoic
    Subduction of the earth's original ultramafic crust

  6. What was the extent of late Proterozoic (Varangian) glaciation?
    Covered all high latitude regions
    Covered all latitudes including the tropics
    Restricted to polar regions
    Restricted to the northern hemisphere
    Restricted to the southern hemisphere

  7. What was the largest continent during most of the Proterozoic Eon?
    Eurasia
    Gondwanaland
    Kazakstania
    North America
    Siberia

  8. During which eon or era did the prokaryotic cell first appear?
    Archean
    Cenozoic
    Mesozoic
    Paleozoic
    Proterozoic

  9. During which eon or era did the eukaryotic cell first appear?
    Archean
    Cenozoic
    Mesozoic
    Paleozoic
    Proterozoic

  10. What type of rock are the earliest fossils found in?
    Chert
    Coal
    Limestone
    Sandstone
    Shale

  11. What is the significance of stromatolites?
    Fossils of the earliest eukaryotes
    Inorganic sedimentary structures once thought to be fossils
    Mounds of archibacteria bacteria
    Mounds of photosynthetic bacteria
    The first large multicellular creatures

  12. What is the significance of the Ediacaran fossils?
    Fossils of the earliest eukaryotes
    Inorganic sedimentary structures once thought to be fossils
    Mounds of archibacteria bacteria
    Mounds of photosynthetic bacteria
    The first large multicellular creatures

  13. What is the age of the Ediacara Fauna?
    Early Archean
    Early Paleozoic
    Early Proterozoic
    Late Archean
    Late Proterozoic

  14. What is the character of the Ediacara Fauna? (Small means under inch in length)
    Large mobile shelled organisms
    Large soft-bodied organisms
    Large stationary shelled organisms
    Small shelled organisms
    Small soft-bodied organisms

  15. What is the character of the Tommotian Fauna? (Small means under inch in length)
    Large mobile shelled organisms
    Large soft-bodied organisms
    Large stationary shelled organisms
    Small shelled organisms
    Small soft-bodied organisms

  16. Why are Ediacaran organisms so well-preserved?
    There were no scavengers around to eat them.
    They had poison tissues that discouraged predators.
    They have hard parts that preserve easily.
    They lived in lakes rather than in the ocean.
    They were buried rapidly in an anoxic environment.

  17. How did Dolf Seilacher interpret the Ediacara Fauna?
    As a separate, failed radiation of life
    As direct ancestors of the Cambrian animals
    As evidence for the fixity of species
    As fast-swimming predators and burrowers
    As pseudofossils that had tricked earlier paleontologists

  18. What is an organism that cannot produce its own food, and therefore must eat other organisms to survive?
    Acritarch
    Autotroph
    Eukaryote
    Heterotroph
    Prokaryote

  19. What is a cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus, chromosomes, and organelles?
    Acritarch
    Autotroph
    Eukaryote
    Heterotroph
    Prokaryote

  20. What was the greatest difficulty faced by early organisms in attempting to become large?
    Inability to stay afloat in the ocean
    Lack of available carbon
    Lack of surface area for respiration
    More difficulty finding adequate food
    More easily spotted by predators

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