Levin, Chapter 8

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  1. What two elements is the universe made primarily of?
    Carbon and nitrogen
    Hydrogen and helium
    Iron and nickel
    Silicon and oxygen

  2. Which two elements are most abundant in the earth?
    Carbon and nitrogen
    Hydrogen and helium
    Iron and nickel
    Silicon and oxygen

  3. Match each characteristic with the planet it applies to.
    Characteristic Planet
    Closest in size to the earth
    Closest planet to sun
    Farthest planet from sun
    Has largest orbiting rings
    Has oceans of liquid water
    Has one giant volcano
    Has tectonics similar to the earth
    Is a museum of early solar system history
    Largest planet in solar system
    Most habitable planet besides earth
    Earth
    Jupiter
    Mars
    Mercury
    Pluto
    Saturn
    Venus

  4. Match each material with its age.
    Oldest continental crust
    Oldest lunar highlands rocks
    Oldest lunar maria rocks
    Oldest meteorites
    Oldest oceanic crust
    180 million years
    2.5 billion years
    3.8 billion years
    4.0 billion years
    4.5 billion years

  5. What is the oldest object ever radiometrically dated?
    A mineral from a chondrite meteorite
    A mineral from an iron meteorite
    A mineral from the Allende meteorite
    A mineral from the earth
    A mineral from the moon

  6. What is the accepted scientific explanation for the origin of our solar system?
    Special creation by God
    The capture hypothesis
    The ejection hypothesis
    The near-miss hypothesis
    The nebular hypothesis

  7. What has been the rate of meteor impacts and cratering over the life of our solar system?
    Impacts have increased only when other stars have passed near our solar system.
    The rate of impacts has decreased over time.
    The rate of impacts has increased over time.
    The rate of impacts has remained constant over time.
    There is no way of determining the rate of impacts over time.

  8. Which seismic waves produce a donut-shaped shadow zone on the back side of the earth following an earthquake?
    Primary waves
    Secondary waves
    Surface waves
    All of the above
    None of the above

  9. Match each layer or boundary with its description.
    Layer or boundary Description
    Asthenosphere
    Gutenberg discontinuity
    Lithosphere
    Mohorovicic discontinuity
    Boundary between crust and mantle
    Boundary between mantle and core
    Crust and upper mantle that make up tectonic plates
    Partly molten upper mantle along which plates slide

  10. Match each geological region of the continents with its definition.
    Continental shelves
    Cratons
    Orogenic belts
    Platforms
    Shields
    Areas below sea level
    Areas with mountains
    Flat areas covered with layers of sedimentary rock
    Flat areas with exposed igneous and metamorphic rock
    Large flat areas of any type

  11. Why do all continents have large areas that are very flat?
    Erosion over hundreds of millions of years
    Formation by very slow and gentle geologic processes
    Gradual uplift from the sea
    Part of the earth's original crust
    Sinking of continental crust by isostasy

  12. What are the unique Archean sedimentary sequences of volcanics and sediments called?
    Banded iron formations
    Cratonic sequences
    Granulites
    Greenstone belts
    Vermiculites

  13. What is the time range of Banded Iron Formations?
    3.0-1.5 billion years ago
    3.5 billion years ago to the present
    3.5-2.0 billion years ago
    4.0 billion years ago to the present
    4.0-2.5 billion years ago

  14. What are the two most abundant gases in the earth's current atmosphere?
    Hydrogen and helium
    Nitrogen and helium
    Nitrogen and oxygen
    Oxygen and argon
    Oxygen and carbon dioxide

  15. What is the earth's original atmosphere thought to have been primarily composed of?
    Carbon dioxide and ammonia
    Hydrogen and helium
    Methane and oxygen
    Nitrogen and oxygen
    Sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide

  16. What is the earth's second atmosphere thought to have been primarily composed of?
    Carbon dioxide and ammonia
    Hydrogen and helium
    Methane and oxygen
    Nitrogen and oxygen
    Sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide

  17. What is the best indication of low atmospheric oxygen levels in the earth's past?
    Banded iron formations
    Blue fossils
    Dolomite
    Evaporites
    Red beds

  18. Where is the earth's ocean water believed to have come from?
    40 days of rain
    Cometary showers
    Glaciers
    Volcanic outgassing
    Weathering of silicate minerals

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