Levin, Chapter 6

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  1. Match each contribution or belief with its chief founder or proponent.
    Contribution or Belief. Founding Scientist.
    Demonstrated the reality of extinction
    Discovered the key to genetic inheritance
    Disproved spontaneous generation
    Founded species classification hierarchy
    Founded species concept
    Insisted that the earth was created in six 24-hour days
    Overplayed the concept of embryological development
    Proposed evolution by inheritance of acquired characters
    Proposed evolution by natural selection
    Carolus Linnaeus
    Charles Darwin
    Ernst Haeckel
    George McCready Price
    Georges Cuvier
    Georges de Buffon
    Gregor Mendel
    Jean Baptiste de Lamarck
    Louis Pasteur

  2. Match the following evolutionary terms with their definitions.
    Term Definition
    Adaptive radiation
    Allopatric speciation
    Convergent evolution
    Divergent evolution
    Evolutionary trend
    Extinction
    Iterative evolution
    Macroevolution
    Microevolution
    Neoteny
    Preadaptation
    Sympatric speciation
    A body structure switching from one function to another
    A juvenile trait being retained into adulthood
    A single population of a species diverging into two species
    A species giving rise to morphologically distinct species
    Development of an entirely new body form or structure
    Distantly related species coming to look superficially alike
    Isolated populations of a species becoming different species
    Long-term evolutionary change in the same direction
    One lineage quickly giving rise to many descendant species
    One lineage repeatedly giving rise to similar descendants
    Small-scale evolutionary changes in a lineage
    The death of all members of a species

  3. Which of the following was not used by Darwin as an evidence for evolution?
    Domestic animal variation
    Embryological similarities
    Genetic similarities
    Morphological similarities
    Rudimentary organs

  4. Why did Mendelian genetics at first seem in conflict with evolution?
    It put limits on the ultimate range of variation within a species.
    It suggested that all members of a species were clones of the original creation.
    It suggested that change could only take place in large steps.
    Many believed that evolution required a fluid model of inheritance to work.
    Mendel was a monk, so his belief in religion conflicted with evolution.

  5. What are similar-looking species among marsupial and placental mammals an evolutionary example of?
    Analogy
    Convergent evolution
    Divergent evolution
    Homology
    Iterative evolution

  6. What are the pelvis and femur bones of whales and snakes an example of?
    Embryological similarities
    Inheritance of acquired characters
    Iterative evolution
    Punctuated equilibrium
    Vestigial organs

  7. What is a possible explanation for why many species appear abruptly in the fossil record?
    Embryological similarities
    Inheritance of acquired characters
    Iterative evolution
    Punctuated equilibrium
    Vestigial organs

  8. Which of the following may be a case of inheritance of acquired characters?
    Aging effects
    Giraffe necks
    Immune response
    Large muscles
    Vestigial organs

  9. What name is given to the tracks, trails, and burrows of ancient organisms?
    Body fossils
    Carbonizations
    Casts
    Petrifications
    Trace fossils

  10. What kind of preservation most commonly applies to fossil tree leaves?
    Body fossils
    Carbonizations
    Casts
    Petrifications
    Trace fossils

  11. What is the study of how fossils are preserved?
    Biostratigraphy
    Cladistics
    Ichnology
    Lithostratigraphy
    Taphonomy

  12. What is the study of species classification based on shared, derived characters?
    Biostratigraphy
    Cladistics
    Ichnology
    Lithostratigraphy
    Taphonomy

  13. Match the fossil characteristics to the science they are most useful for.
    Species that are large-bodied, exotic, or that are rarely preserved
    Species that are long-lived but survive only in restricted environments
    Species that are short-lived but are preserved in many environments
    Species that have difficulty crossing barriers to invade new habitats
    Biostratigraphy
    Paleobiogeography
    Paleobiology
    Paleoecology

  14. What year was the John Scopes "Monkey Trial" in Tennessee? (These last three questions will not be covered on the exam.)
    1859
    1925
    1957
    1960
    1962

  15. Which creationist was a Seventh-Day Adventist and was heavily influenced by the teachings of that denomination?
    Duane Gish
    George Price
    Henry Morris
    John Whitcomb
    Steve Austin

  16. Which creationist is famous for challenging evolutionary scientists to public debates?
    Duane Gish
    George Price
    Henry Morris
    John Whitcomb
    Steve Austin

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