Levin, Chapter 2

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  1. Match each concept with its description.
    Catastrophism
    Deism
    Neptunism
    Plutonism
    Uniformitarianism
    All rocks precipitated from a universal ocean.
    Earth was shaped primarily by rapid and violent events.
    Many of earth's primitive rocks were formed by heat from the interior.
    Present processes are the key to understanding processes of the past.
    The world was created as a perfect machine.

  2. What was James Hutton's main theological concern as he tried to interpret earth history?
    How fossils can be squared with the Bible
    How God created life
    How God created soil
    How God created the earth
    The age of the earth

  3. What is Stratigraphy the study of?
    Fossils
    Landforms
    Sedimentary rock layers
    The age of rocks
    The history of geological ideas

  4. Which of these is the best way to correlate rocks of the same age between distant locations?
    Degree of consolidation
    Degree of metamorphism
    Index fossils
    Rock color
    Rock composition

  5. What is a fossil?
    A remnant of ancient life
    An animal body part
    Any buried old object
    Any old object

  6. What property makes a good index fossil?
    Easily recognizable
    Restricted time range
    Very common
    Widespread occurrence
    All of the above

  7. What principle states that higher sedimentary layers in a stratigraphic sequence are younger than deeper layers?
    Crosscutting relations
    Inclusions
    Lateral continuity
    Original horizontality
    Superposition

  8. Which rock or structure does not follow the principal of superposition?
    Basalt in a lava flow
    Basalt in a sill
    Coal seam
    Rock salt and rock gypsum
    Sandstone

  9. What principle indicates that a dike is younger than the rock it penetrates?
    Crosscutting relations
    Inclusions
    Lateral continuity
    Original horizontality
    Superposition

  10. What is an unconformity?
    A rock layer that has been heavily weathered or metamorphosed
    A sedimentary surface that represents a time gap in the sedimentary record
    The boundary between any two basic rock types (e.g. igneous and sedimentary)
    The boundary between rocks that have been offset along a fault
    Two bodies of rock meeting at an angle to one another (non-parallel)

  11. Match each branch of geological science with the topic it is involved in studying.
    Biostratigraphy
    Geochronology
    Paleogeography
    Paleontology
    Stratigraphy
    Dating past events
    Fossil correlation
    Fossils
    Layered rocks
    Positions of ancient continents

  12. Match each type of unconformity with the type of rock that underlies it.
    Underlying rock Unconformity
    Horizontal sedimentary rock
    Igneous rock
    Metamorphic rock
    Tilted sedimentary rock
    Angular unconformity
    Disconformity
    Nonconformity

  13. Match each contribution or belief with its chief proponent.
    Contribution or Belief Founding scientist
    Believed in a false cyclic history of life
    Calculated age of earth using heat loss rates
    Chief Neptunist
    Chief Plutonist
    Chief proponent of Catastrophism
    Chief proponent of Uniformitarianism
    Concerned with soil formation
    Documented extinctions
    Famous anatomist
    Father of Uniformitarianism
    First mapped rocks of England
    First mapped rocks of France
    First proposed the Ice Age
    First rafted the Grand Canyon
    Named the Cambrian Period
    Named the Silurian Period
    Principle of Cross-cutting relations
    Principle of Descent with Modification
    Principle of Faunal Succession
    Principle of Inclusions
    Principle of Natural Selection
    Principle of Original Horizontality
    Principle of Superposition
    Principle of Unconformities
    Proposed evolution of coral reefs
    Abraham Werner
    Adam Sedgwick
    Charles Darwin
    Charles Lyell
    Georges Cuvier
    James Hutton
    John Wesley Powell
    Lord Kelvin
    Louis Agassiz
    Nicolaus Steno
    Roderick Murchison
    William Smith

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